Chip's Commentary

Ge 1:1 The Bible

Units and Measurements

Weight-

shekel-.4 oz

talent-75 lbs


Dry-

ephah-.6 bushel

homer-6 bushels


Liquid-

hin-1 gal

bath-6 gal


Length-

handbreadth-3 in.

span-9 in.

cubit-18 in.


If humans had written the Bible-

-Jesus would not have come from Nazareth; would not have come riding on a donkey

-Humans would play a part in their salvation (would not be totally depraved)

-Prostitutes and Gentiles would not be in the lineage of the King;

-God would not have instructed the Israelites to slaughter women and children

-There would be no talking animals

-The sun would not have altered course (twice, Is 38.8 and Josh 10.13)

-Jesus would have been a uniter, not a divider (Mt 10.35-36)

-Women would not have been selected to report the resurrection

-Moses and David would have been without major character flaws (Abraham and Isaac lied; Jacob deceived)

-The Apostles would not have abandoned Jesus at the moment He most “needed” them

-The Gospel writers would have colluded and gotten their stories "straight"

-Mark would have called his gospel “the Gospel according to Peter”

-There would be no report of a resurrection, since the Jews were not looking for that until the end

-Every book would have some mention of God/Lord/LORD (2 don’t)

-The legend would not have been recorded while all who would have known about the events were still alive

-The lead character would not have been murdered, much less crucified (which was seen from Jerusalem's walls and on the major road to Joppa and to Caesarea Maritima)

-Would not have included historically verifiable placemarks

-There would be no imprecatory Psalms

-John wouldn't have baptized Jesus

-Jesus would not have made such comments as "Let the dead bury the dead,” called the Syrophoenecian woman a "dog," and instructed his followers to “hate” their families

-Luke would not have reported Jesus’ claim about the Gentiles culpability in the death of Jesus (Lk 18.32-33)

-The apostles would not have tried to sell the monotheistic Jews on the trinity, or the rational Greeks on the resurrection


"A comparison of Scripture with other ancient literature is, in this respect, illuminating. For instance, consider the first page of the Bible. I suggest that any person who questions to actual fact of Revelation should compare it with all the accounts of creation whether Sumerian, Babylonian, Assyrian, Phoenician, Greek, Chinese or Roman which have come down to us. I submit that such a comparison will at once reveal the difference between revelation and human guesswork or research. The second comparison with eternal literature I would make is the difference between the four gospels and the excluded or apocryphal gospels. Those acquainted with the excluded gospels cannot but be impressed with the essential difference between them and the fourfold life of our Lord as we have it in the new Testament" (F. F. Bruce, M.A., “What Do We Mean By Biblical Inspiration?” Journal of the Transactions of the Victoria Institute 78 (1946): 130).


Patrick Henry: “The Bible is worth all other books which have ever been printed” (William Wirt, The Life and Character of Patrick Henry (Philadelphia: James Webster, 1818), p.402).


"While the Greek texts (Josephus, the Gospels, Philo) emphasize philosophic and theological differences, the Hebrew and Aramaic documents (the Qumran scrolls, the rabbinic documents) focus on issues of practice." (The Oxford History of the Biblical World, M.D. Coogan, ed, p. 483)


OT uses more aorist and future tense (Rahlf's LXX); NT uses more present tense (NA28)


The Bible must be the invention either of good men or angels, bad men or devils, or of God:

1. It could not be the invention of good men or angels; for they neither would or could make a book, and tell lies all the time they were writing it, saying “Thus saith the Lord,” when it was their own invention.

2. It could not be the invention of bad men or devils; for they would not make a book which commands all duty, forbids all sin, and condemns their souls to hell to all eternity.

3. Therefore, I draw this conclusion, that the Bible must be given by divine inspiration.

(Charles Wesley)


Top 10 Verb Senses (LEB)

to say (express), 7183

to be (quality), 3415

to do (act), 1869

to come, 1739

to speak, 1371

to see, 1212

to go (travel), 1112

to happen (come about), 1103

to give (transfer), 894

to bring, 771


Top 10 Noun Senses (LEB)

God, 25853

Israelites, 13224

Jesus, 7512

Kingdom of Judah, 4251

David, 3896

Israelites (the Exodus), 3824

A Man, 3657

Israelites (the Conquest), 3623

Paul, 3257

Moses, 2738


Top 10 people (LEB)

David, 3896

A Man, 3657

Paul, 3257

Moses, 2738

A Person, 2190

Jacob (son of Isaac), 1726

Psalmist (Davidic), 1498

A Wicked Person, 1447

Job, 1388

A Son, 1388


Top 10 places (LEB)

Jerusalem, 2145

Babylon, 603

Tyre, 244

Any City or Town, 181

Samaria (city), 171

Bethel (North of Jerusalem), 131

Hebron (city), 123

Jericho (Old Testament), 101

Shechem (city), 95

Any Village, 89


Top 8 Nations (LEB)

Egypt (nation), 804

Any Region, 616

Israel, 580

Canaan, 555

Judah (kingdom), 441

Moab, 127

Edom, 121

Any Place, 115


Top 10 Entity (LEB)

Yahweh, 4693

son, 2828

king, 2799

God (Israelite), 2648

man, 1784

presence ⇔ face, 1605

citizenry ⇔ people, 1424

day (sunset), 1302

person, 1263

city, 1189


Top 15 Prayer Categories (LEB)

Petition, 140

Praise, 92

Thanksgiving, 39

Complaint, 35

Intercession, 32

Confession, 29

Blessing, 28

Query, 18

Repentance, 17

Affirmation, 9

Oath, 9

Imprecation, 7

Other, 6

Lament, 4

Curse, 3


Top 15 Speaking to God Categories (LEB)

Petition, 249

Query, 150

Response, 138

Praise, 134

Other   88

Complaint, 72

Confession, 72

Intercession, 47

Thanksgiving, 47

Blessing, 35

Affirmation, 31

Repentance, 18

Imprecation, 17

Oath, 13

Lament, 6


Top 10 things petitioned (LEB)

Heart, 48

Hand, 45

Earth, 44

Eye, 36

Mouth, 32

Jewish temple, 30

Face, 25

Sky, 19

Head, 18

Water, 18

Ge 1:1 Old Testament

“The real theme of the Pentateuch is the selection of Israel from the nations and its consecration to the service of God and His Laws in a divinely appointed land. The central event in the development of this theme is the divine covenant with Abraham and its … promise to make his offspring into the people of God and to give them the land of Canaan as an everlasting inheritance” (M.H Segal, The Pentateuch: Its Composition and Its Authorship and Other Biblical Studies, p. 23, italics his).


"Genesis forms the introduction to the Pentateuch’s main theme of the founding of the theocracy, that is, the rule of God over all Creation. Exodus presents the redemption of the seed out of bondage and the granting of a covenant to them. Leviticus is the manual of ordinances enabling the holy God to dwell among His people by making them holy. Numbers records the military arrangement and census of the tribes in the wilderness, and shows how God preserves His promised blessings from internal and external threats. Deuteronomy presents the renewal of the covenant" (Allen P. Ross, "Genesis", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 26)


Dt 28, key to understanding OT


Torah is 25% of the HB by words


11 Historical books carry the timeline (Lev, Deut, Ruth, 1-2 Chron, and Esther supplement the timeline)


613 laws in the Torah

365 Negative, 248 Positive


Positive (248)

Belief in God and Our Duties Toward Him (19)

The Sanctuary, Priesthood and Sacrifices (76)

The Sources of Uncleanness and the Modes of Purification (18)

Gifts to the Temple, the Poor, the Priests and Levites; the Sabbatical Year and the Jubilee; the Preparation of Food (39)

The Holy Days and the Observances Connected With Them (19)

The Proper Functioning of the Jewish State (22)

Our Duties Towards Our Fellow Men (16)

The Duties Attaching to Family Life (14)

The Enforcement of Criminal Law (8)

The Laws Relating to Property, Real and Personal (17)


Negative (365)

Idolatry and Related Subjects (59)

Our Duties to God, the Sanctuary, and the Services Therein (29)

Sacrifices, Priestly Gifts, Priests, Levites, and Related Subjects (83)

Prohibitions Affecting Food (38)

Cultivation of the Land (19)

Our Duties Towards Our Fellow Men, Towards the Poor and Towards Employees (42)

The Administration of Justice, the Authority of the Courts, and Similar Matters (49)

The Sabbath and Festivals (10)

The Forbidden Degrees of Marriage and Related Subjects (32)

The Head of the Jewish State and Its Officers (4)


Not Applicable Today 330

Applicable Today 260


Laws by Book:

Gen-3

Ex-108

Lev-242

Nu-57

Dt-203


Laws by Category:

Sacrifices and Offerings, 102

Idolatry, Idolaters, Idolatrous Practices, 46

Times and Seasons, 36

The Court and Judicial Procedure, 36

Temple, Sanctuary, Sacred Objects, 33

Kohanim and Levites, 30

Dietary Laws, 27

Forbidden Sexual Relations, 25

Punishment and Restitution, 24

T'rumah, Tithes, Taxes, 24

Marriage, Divorce, Family, 23

Employees, Servants, Slaves, 19

Sabbatical and Jubilee Years, 17

Ritual Purity and Impurity, 16

Wars, 16

Love and Brotherhood, 14

Business Practices, 14

The Poor and Unfortunate, 13

Property and Property Rights, 11

God, 10

Nazarites, 10

Vows, Oaths, Swearing, 7

Criminal Laws, 7

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 7

The King, 7

Torah, 6

Treatment of Gentiles, 6

Signs and Symbols, 5

Prayer and Blessings, 4

Injuries and Damages, 4

The Firstborn, 4

Lepers and Leprosy, 4

Prophecy, 3

Clothing, 3


Top 10 Proper Nouns in MT Torah

Yhwh-1836

Mosheh-647

Yisrael-587

Mitzraim (Egypt)-357

Ahron-301

Yacov-212 (only mentioned once in Lev-26.42)

Yoseph-175 (not mentioned in Lev, mentioned three times in Dt)

Avraham-151 (only mentioned once in Lev-26.42 and once in Num-32.11)

Yitzak-98 (only mentioned once in Lev-26.42 and once in Num-32.11)

Esau-82 (not mentioned in Ex, Lev, and Nu)


Top 25 Proper Nouns in OT

LORD -6828

God -2601

Israel -2507

David -1075

Judah -816

Moses -763

Jerusalem -641

Egypt -593

Saul -392

Jacob -347

Aaron -345

Solomon -286

Babylon -253

Joshua -219

Joseph -210

Jordan -181

Abraham -174

Ephraim -171

Moab -166

Benjamin -159

Zion -154

Jeremiah -146

Joab- 145

Manasseh -141

Samuel -137


Top 11 OT books quoted in NT by verses (includes all quotes, allusions, citations, and echos; 5 are from the 12; Isa, Ps, Ex, Gen, and Deut are top 5 by raw numbers)

Mal

Joel

Isa

Dan

Zech

Deut

Ex

Ps

Gen

Jonah

Hab


"Whereas there are direct quotations or references confirming the authority of eighteen of the twenty-two books of the Hebrew Old Testament, events from two of the remaining books have their authenticity confirmed by the New Testament. Several of the Judges are referred to in Hebrews 11:32, as are numerous events from Chronicles (cf. Matt. 23:35). Thus, only Esther and Song of Solomon are without any direct confirmation as to their authority or authenticity. Here one must rely on the original and subsequent Jewish community, who knew their prophetic source and that they were a part of the canonical books of the 'Prophets'" (Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 88)


Top 10 numerals in LXX:

2-612

7-347

10-293

20-277

5-268

100-237

30-167

50-163

40-141

6-128


Top 11 LHB interrogative by words in book (7 are from the 12)

Obad

Job

Hab

Mal

Micah

Ruth

2 Sam

Haggai

Amos

Jonah

Nah


Top 12 LHB interrogative by words in chapter (all Ps and Job)

Ps 13

Ps 94

Job 38

Job 39

Job 22

Ps 42

Job 10

Ps 43

Job 4

Job 21

Job 40

Job 13


ahav by words in book, LHB (same order as LXX (agapaw) except Song is #1)

Hos

Song

Mal

Prov

Ps

Deut


ahavah by words in book, LHB (Song #1 in both LXX (agapay) and LHB)

Song (6x as much as the next)

Zeph

Prov

Micah

Eccles

Hos


aman by words in book, LHB (Hab #1 in both LXX (pisteuw) and LHB)

Hab

Jonah

Job

Hos

Isa

Ps


amunah by words in book, LHB (Hab #1 in both LXX (pistis) and LHB)

Hab

Ps

Lam

Prov

Hos


chesed by words in book, LHB

Ps (over twice as much as next)

Jonah

Hos

Ruth

Micah

Prov

Lam

Neh


hamartanw by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (Lev, Lam, Eccles, Hosea in top 5 of both LXX and LHB (chata))

Lam

Lev

Eccles

Job

Hos


hamartia by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (Lev, Micah, Num top 3 in order in both LXX and LHB (chatat))

Lev

Micah

Num

Dan

Prov

Isa

Hos

Lam


dikaosunay by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (Ps and Prov in top 4 in both LXX and LHB (tsadakah); Prov #1 in both)

Prov

Ps

Mal

Isa

Amos

Micah

Zeph

Hos

Dan

Ezek


pistis by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (Hab #1 in both LXX and LHB (amunah))

Hab

Prov

Song

Jer

Hos


pisteuw by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (Hab #1 in both LXX and LHB (aman))

Hab

Job

Lam

Exod

Ps


apagaw by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (same as LHB (ahav) except Hos #1)

Song

Hos

Mal

Prov

Ps

Deut


apagay by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (all occurrences) (Song #1 in both LXX and LHB (ahavah))

Song (over 10x as many as next)

Eccles

2 Kgdms

Jer


chata by words in book, LHB (1 and 2 K in top 7; Lev, Lam, Eccles, Hosea in top 5 of both LXX (hamartanw) and LHB)

Lev

Eccles

Hos

Lam

1 Kings

Hab

2 Kings

Job

Zeph

Neh

1 Sam

Num

Prov


chatat by words in book, LHB (1 and 2 K in top 8; Lev, Micah, Num top 3 in order in both Rahlfs LXX (hamartia) and LHB)

Lev

Micah

Num

Hos

Lam

1 Kings

Ezek

2 Kings

Prov

Zech

Neh

Job

Isa

2 Chron


tsadakah by words in book, LHB (Ps and Prov in top 4 in both LXX (dikaosunay) and LHB; Prov #1 in both)

Prov

Mal

Isa

Ps

Amos

Micah

Ezek

Joel

Dan

Job

Hos

Deut

Jer


wayyiqtol by words in book, LHB (waw-consecutive+imperfect)

Jonah

Judg

Ruth

Gen

1 Sam

2 Kings

2 Sam

1 Kings

2 Chron

Josh

Exod

Esther


Top 10 Ratio of Wayyiqtol to Perfect/Waw Perfect/Imperfect, LHB (Gen 1 is #33/929)

Gen 5

Exod 2

1 Chron 20

Num 33

1 Sam 31

1 Sam 7

2 Chron 3

Judg 19

1 Sam 19

Gen 11


Wayyiqtol by words, LHB

Exod 2

Num 33

Gen 38

1 Sam 19

Judg 15

1 Sam 31

1 Chron 10

2 Kings 4

Judg 12

Gen 5

Ps 106

2 Kings 2

2 Sam 10

2 Sam 11

1 Sam 28

1 Chron 19

1 Kings 19

1 Chron 20

1 Sam 7

Gen 26

Judg 19

Gen 29

1 Sam 11

Judg 16

Gen 39


Ratio of Perfect to other verbs, Rahlf's LXX

Exod 37

Josh 21

Num 2

Num 7

Job 41

Exod 36

Exod 27

Job 30

Ps 110 (111 in MT)

3 Kgdms 4

Ezek 41

Ps 133 (134 in MT)


Ratio of Present to other verbs, Rahlf's LXX (15 of top 20 are Prov)

Ps 150

Ps 112 (113 MT)

Ps 132 (133 MT)

Ps 146 (147.1-11 MT)

Prov 15

Prov 18

Prov 21

Prov 16

Prov 11

Prov 27

Prov 26

Prov 13

Prov 12

Prov 17

Prov 14

Prov 10

Prov 19

Prov 29

Prov 6

Ps 116 (117 MT)

Prov 5


Ratio of Aorist to other verbs, Rahlf's LXX (Ex 26 has 0 aorist)

Gen 5

4 Kgdms 13

Ps 46 (47 in MT)

Gen 11

Lev 9

2 Kgdms 10

Gen 10

1 Chron 1

Sirach 47

1 Macc 1

1 Chron 10

Lev 8

2 Chron 14

Ps 104 (105 in MT)

Ps Solomon 11

Ps 105 (106 in MT)

Ps Solomon 1

1 Chron 19

Esdr B 19

Esdr B 10

1 Chron 3

Sirach 48

Judg 3

1 Chron 5

1 Chron 7

2 Chron 24


Aorist by words, Rahlf's LXX

Gen 38

Gen 5

Judg 15

Gen 11

Exod 2

2 Kgdms 1

2 Kgdms 13

2 Kgdms 10

Gen 27

Ruth 2

Gen 18

1 Kgdms 19

1 Kgdms 3

Gen 43

2 Kgdms 11

2 Kgdms 12

Judg 14

Judg 12

Ruth 3

Gen 33

Josh 7

Judg 2

Judg 19

Gen 19

Gen 37


Future by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (9 of top 13 are from the 12)

Hab

Micah

Lev

Isa

Hos

Nah

Zech

Zeph

Amos

Joel

Obad

Deut

Ezek


Ratio of Future to other verbs, Rahlf's LXX

Lev 3

Num 29

Dan 11

Lev 1

Exod 26

Zech 14

Ps 90 (91 in MT)

Exod 29

Lev 16

Isa 11

Exod 25

Ps 71 (72 in MT)

Ezek 5

Ezek 4

Zech 10

Joel 3

Num 28

Isa 19

Lev 19

Num 34

Lev 26

Lev 12


Imperative by words in book, LHB (Joel and Ps top 2 in both LHB and Rahlf's LXX)

Joel

Ps

Nah

Song

Haggai

Isa

Prov


Imperative by words in book, Rahlf's LXX (Joel and Ps top 2 in both LHB and LXX)

Joel

Ps

Prov

Isa

Haggai

Dan

Song

1 Kgdms

Zeph

Jonah

Ruth


Top 10 Imperatives by words, LHB (Ex 36-40, Ezek 46-48, and Job 24-31 have none; 21 of top 25 imperatives are Ps)

Ps 150

Ps 100

Ps 4

Ps 96

Prov 4

Ps 134

Ps 117

Isa 12

Ps 80

Ps 82


Ratio of Imperatives to other verbs, LHB (21 of top 25 imperatives are Ps)

Ps 150

Ps 100

Ps 117

Ps 134

Ps 96

Ps 148

Ps 47

Ps 4

Prov 4

Ps 86

Ps 25

Isa 12

Ps 98

Ps 82

Ps 28

Ps 80

Ps 123

Ps 128

Song 2

1 Chron 16

Ps 43

Ps 144

Ps 135

Ps 17

Ps 24


Ratio of imperative to all verbs, Rahlf's LXX (Ex 37-40 has no imperatives; 21 of top 25 are Ps; Ps 150 and Ps 100 (99 in LXX) are #1 and #2 in LXX and LHB)

Ps 150

Ps 99 (100 in MT)

Ps 148

Ps 133 (134 in MT)

Ps 66 (67 in MT)

Ps 95 (96 in MT)

Ps 116 (117 in MT)

Ps 85 (86 in MT)

Ps 149

Ps 24 (25 in MT)

Prov 5

1 Chron 16


Top 10 LHB shuv by words in book (6 are from the 12)

Ruth

Lam

Hos

Mal

Amos

Jonah

Joel

Zech

Jer

2 Sam


Top 10 LHB shuv by words in chapter

Ps 85

Ps 126

Ruth 1

Ps 23

Hos 14

Ezek 18

Jonah 3

Song 7

Ps 80

Amos 1


Top 5 LHB ywhw by words in book (all are from the 12; top 4 are last books in OT)

Haggai

Mal

Zeph

Zech

Amos


Top 30 LHB ywhw by words in chapter (29 of top 30 are Ps)

Ps 134

Ps 29

Ps 117

Ps 116

Ps 93

Ps 118

Ps 146

Ps 113

Ps 96

Ps 34

Ps 6

Ps 100

Ps 30

Ps 135

Ps 121

Ps 27

Ps 3

Ps 99

Ps 125

Ps 33

Ps 98

Ps 126

Ps 138

1 Sam 12

Ps 130

Ps 115

Ps 11

Ps 20

Ps 26

Ps 124


Top elohim books: (raw numbers: Dt (374), Ps (365), Ge (219), 2Chr (203))

Deut

Jonah

Ps

2 Chron

Ezra

Eccles

Neh

1 Chron

Gen

Joel


Top elohim chapters: (raw numbers: Gen 1 (32), Ps 68 (26), Dt 12 (26), Dt 4 (25), Ex 3 (21))

Ps 47

Ps 43

Ps 67

Ps 53

Gen 1

Ps 68

Ps 56

Ps 42

Ps 48

Ps 46

Ps 82

Ps 62

Ps 84

Ps 54

Ps 108

Exod 3

Ps 70


Top Rahlf's LXX Lemma Nouns

κύριος, 8296

υἱός, 4913

θεός, 3777

βασιλεύς, 3180

γῆ, 3043

ἡμέρα, 2420

οἶκος, 1968

λαός, 1955

χείρ, 1812

ἀνήρ, 1672


Top Rahlf's LXX lemma verbs

εἰμί, 6451

εἶπον, 4166

λέγω, 4031

ποιέω, 3209

γίνομαι, 2006

δίδωμι, 1991

ὁράω, 1751

γίγνομαι, 1476

λαμβάνω, 1255

λαλέω, 1127


Top 25 LXX Vocative

κύριος, 582

υἱός, 145

βασιλεύς, 59

θυγάτηρ, 39

τέκνον, 22

πατήρ, 13

ἀδελφός, 9

Ἰερουσαλήμ, 9

δεσπότης, 8

ἄνθρωπος, 7

Ιουδας , 7

Ἐσθήρ, 5

οἶκος, 5

ὄρος, 5

ἀδελφιδός, 4

Ἰσραήλ, 4

Ἰώβ, 4

Ἰερεμίας, 3

Μωϋσῆς, 3

παρθένος, 3

περιστερά, 3

πόλις, 3

ἔθνος, 2

Εσεβων, 2

ἡγεμών, 2


Top 10 Verb Roots (LHB)

אמר 5317

היה 3575

עשׂה 2632

בוא 2578

נתן 2013

הלך 1554

ראה 1309

שׁמע 1165

דבר 1135

ישׁב 1089


Top 10 Noun Roots (LHB)

יהוה 9721

אֵל 6602

כלל 5461

כֹּל 5419

בֵּן 5239

מלך 2971

מֶ֫לֶךְ 2799

אֱלֹהִים 2660

שׂרה 2529

יִשְׂרָאֵל 2507


Top 10 Verb Senses (LHB)

to say (express), 5236

to be (quality), 1615

to do (act), 1470

to come, 1200

to speak, 1096

to go (travel), 1027

to give (transfer), 835

to see, 783

to happen (come about), 743

to bring, 708


Top 10 Noun Senses (LHB)

Yahweh, 4693

son, 2729

king, 2684

God (Israelite), 2648

presence ⇔ face, 1588

man, 1526

citizenry ⇔ people, 1424

day (sunset), 1302

land (territory), 1182

city, 1114


Top 10 Noun Lemmas (LHB)

יהוה 6828

כֹּל 5415

בֵּן 4942

אֱלֹהִים 2602

מֶ֫לֶךְ 2530

יִשְׂרָאֵל 2507

אֶ֫רֶץ 2505

יוֹם 2301

אִישׁ 2186

פָּנֶה 2127


Top 10 Verb Lemmas (LHB)

אמר 5317

היה 3575

עשׂה 2632

בוא 2578

נתן 2013

הלך 1554

ראה 1309

שׁמע 1165

דבר 1135

ישׁב 1089


Top 10 Biblical Entities (LHB)

God, 22747

Israelites, 13198

Kingdom of Judah, 4251

Israelites (the Exodus, 3824

David, 3723

Israelites (the Conquest), 3623

Kingdom of Judah (Assyrian Exile), 2587

Moses, 2558

A Man, 2141

Jerusalem, 1909


Top 8 places (LHB)

Jerusalem, 1909

Babylon, 539

Tyre, 227

Samaria (city), 156

Any City or Town, 141

Bethel (North of Jerusalem), 131

Hebron (city), 123

Jericho (Old Testament), 101


Top 10 People (LHB)

David, 3723

Moses, 2558

A Man, 2141

A Person, 1844

Jacob (son of Isaac), 1672

Psalmist (Davidic), 1502

A Wicked Person, 1435

Job, 1392

Saul (king), 1251

A Son, 1202


17 Historical books (5 in Torah), 17 Prophetical books (5 Major Prophets), 5 Poetical books


Four Acts of the Bible:

I. Creation

II. Fall

III. Redemption

IV. Consummation


Seven Acts of the Bible

I: Adam to Joshua—beginning of civilization in the ancient Near East to the beginning of Israel (3600–1200 BC; Bronze Age)

II: Joshua to Solomon—Judges to United Monarchy (1200–1000 BC; Iron I)

III: Solomon to Nebuchadnezzar—Divided Monarchy to Exile (1000–586 BC; Iron II)

IV: Nebuchadnezzar to Nehemiah—Exile, biblical postexilic, early Second Temple (586–424 BC)

V: Nehemiah to Herod—Late Second Temple (424–37 BC)

VI: Herod to Jesus—Herod the Great to Jesus’ resurrection (37 BC–AD 30)

VII: Jesus to Revelation—New Testament period, Jewish revolt, destruction of the Second Temple (AD 30–100)


Acrostic Poems

Ps 9, 10, 25, 34, 37, 111, 112, 119, 145

Prov 31.10-31

Lam 1-4


Justified: Just-if-i'd never sinned

Atonement: At-one-ment

Grace: God's-Riches-At-Christ's-Expense

Joy: Jesus-Others-You

Prayer: A-C-T-S (adoration, confession, thanksgiving, supplication-which includes petition and intercession)

Pharisee: were not fair, you see

Sadducee: were sad, you see


The OT books were named based on the Vulgate, which named books based on the LXX.

Ge 1:1

It all begins with Creation and the Flood. Two events, detailed in the 1st and 7th chapters of Genesis, and also in tablets dating back to the 7th century BCE (Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal). In particular, the Babylonian Creation story (Enuma Elish) and the Babylonian Flood story (Gilgamesh Epic; Gilgamesh ruled Uruk 2600 BCE--the epic consists of 11 clay tablets, the 11th tablet describing the flood) are inscribed in cuneiform and relate how the gods of that time brought about creation and the great flood. Indeed, Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks, Hindus, Chinese, Phrygians, Fiji Islanders, Esquimaux, Aboriginal Americans, Indians, Brazilians, Peruvians, and almost every branch of the human race (including Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian) have traditions of a great deluge that destroyed all mankind, except one family, and which left such an impression on the memory of the ancestors of all these races before they separated. The creation account is also recorded on tablets found in Nineveh and Ashur. These Assyrian and Babylonian creation and flood stories are certainly polytheistic. "But with so many points of similarity to the Geneses account, it would seem they must have had a common origin. All these myths are intelligible only on the supposition that some such event did actually occur. Such a universal belief, not springing from some instinctive principle of our nature, must be based on an historical fact." (Henry Halley)

Ge 1:1

New creation Gal 6.15 and 2Cor 5.17; New Heaven and Earth, Rev 21.1 (how long did the new one take to make?); God created everything with the appearance of age; Rev 9.11, Satan is the destroyer


Gen 1 is #33/929 in ratio of Wayyiqtol to Perfect/Waw Perfect/Imperfect, LHB


2Pet 3.4, mockers will use the present as key to understand the past

Ge 1:1 Genesis

Ken Boa: “There are a remarkable number of parallels between the first and last three chapters of the Bible. These chapters portray the beginning and the end of the great drama of God’s creative/redemptive purposes. Genesis 1-3 moves from the creation of the universe to the creation and fall of man. Revelation 20-22 moves from the judgment of the unsaved to the creation of the new universe in which believers will dwell with God. The stories of creation and consummation both stand at the transitional point between time and eternity. Enclosed between these two accounts is the stage of human history on which each person must make the choice between one of two destinies: endless separation from God or endless fellowship with God. Both of these narratives blend figurative with literal language since they deal with realms of existence that transcend our experience. They combine to tell us that our brief earthly existence is not all there is; we must live in the light of who we are (creation) and where we are going (consummation).”


The Tetragrammaton (YHWH) is never used in chapter one, since the creation account focuses on nature itself. It is also not used from chapter 2.1-3, and 40-48; Elohim is not used from 10-16; John 1.1 came before Gen. 1.1


Pantheism was the norm before creation.


Nowhere in the Bible does it attempt to prove the existence of God (Heb 11.6; Job 38.4, where were you?)


There are only two possible scenarios that would explain the existence of the universe: either the universe is self-existent and has always existed, or there is a God Who is self-existent and has always existed.


If you don't accept the first eleven chapters of Gen as literal, you have no basis for almost all major biblical doctrines. It's like trying to build a house without pouring the foundation. Jesus said if He could not be trusted in historical matters, then He should not be trusted in heavenly matters either (Jn 3.12 )


Major Doctrines beginning in Genesis 1-11:

Creation-1.1

Spirit of God (Pneumatology)-1.2

Word of God (Bibliology)-1.3

Reproduction-1.25

Trinity (Theology)-1.26 and 3.22

Covenants-1.26

Man/Woman (Anthropology)-1.26-27 and 2.22

Sabbath/Rest-2.2-3

Work-2.15

Law-2.16-17

Death-2.17

Male Headship in the Home-2.18

Marriage-2.24

Satan/Angels (Angelology)-3.1 and 3.24

Sin/Pride (Hamartiology)-3.6

Guilt-3.7

Failure of Meritocracy-3.7

Grace-3.9

Judgment (Eschatology)-3.15

Christ (Christology)-3.15

Pain and Sorrow-3.16

Sacrifice/Redemption (Soteriology)-3.21

Discipline-3.24

Family-4.1-2

Murder-4.8

Judgment-6.3

Government-9.6

Languages-11.7

Nations-11.8


and others after chapter 11:

Israel and the Church (Ecclesiology)-12.1-3

Heir-15.2

Worship-22.5

Birthright-25.33

Stewardship-39.4


"Most of the controversial passages of the Old Testament are referred to in the New Testament, for example, the creation, Fall, Flood, miracles of Moses and Elijah, and Jonah in the great fish. Those are not just alluded to, they are authenticated as historical events by the New Testament...Virtually every one of the first twenty-two chapters of Genesis, and each of those prior to Abraham (i.e., chaps. 1–11), has either a person or an event that is confirmed by an authoritative New Testament quotation or reference. If these people and events are authentic, then it may be argued a fortiori that the rest of the Old Testament is authentic" (Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 87-88.)


NT support for Gen 1-11:

-Creation, Gen 1 (writer of Hebrews; Heb 11.3)

-Let there be light, Gen 1 (Paul; 2Cor 4.6)

-Earth formed out of water, Gen 1 (Peter; 2Pet 3.5)

-Creation of Male and Female, Gen 1 (Jesus and Paul; Mt 19.4, Mk 10.6, 1Tim 2.13)

-God rested on the seventh day, Gen 2 (writer of Hebrews; Heb 4.4)

-Adam, the first man, Gen 2 (Paul; 1Cor 15.45)

-Woman created for Man, Gen 2 (Paul; 1Cor 11.9)

-Woman made from man, Gen 2 (Paul; 1Cor 11.8)

-The first marriage, Gen 2 (Jesus and Paul; Mt 19.5, Mk 10.7-8, 1Cor 6.16, Eph 5.31)

-Eve deceived, Gen 3 (Paul; Rom 5.12, 2Cor 11.3, 1Tim 2.14)

-Cain killed Abel, Gen 4 (Jesus, writer of Hebrews, John, Jude; Mat 23:35, Luke 11:51, Heb 11:4, Heb 12:24, 1 John 3:12, Jude 11)

-Genealogy from Adam to Shem, Gen 5 (Luke; Lk 3.36-38)

-Enoch taken by God, Gen 5 (writer of Hebrews; Heb 11.5)

-Noah and flood, Gen 6 (Jesus, writer of Hebrews, Peter; Mat 24:37, Luke 17:26, Heb 11:7, 1Pet 3:20, 2Pet 2:5, 2Pet 3:6)

-Geneology from Shem to Abram, Gen 11 (Luke; Lk 3.34-36)

-Abraham called from Ur, Gen 11 (Stephen; Acts 7.2-4)


Create (bara) used 48X in OT, all with God as subject (Gen 1 overrepresented with bara, exceeded only by Is 45)


Many believe in a mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch (Graf-Wellhausen), and some believe in a Mosaic authorship

-Moses was educated in all the wisdom of the Egyptians (Acts 7:22).

-The Book of Exodus explicitly verifies Mosaic authorship (Ex 17.14)

-Other books of the Old Testament witness to the Mosaic authorship of Exodus (Neh 13.1)

-Jesus accepted the Mosaic authorship of Exodus (Mark 7:10, 12:26)


"No human lawgiver could have ordered matters for a nation in a settled state as we find it done in the Pentateuch. The world has had many speculative constitutions of society drawn up by philosophers and theorists, from Plato to Rousseau and Owen. None of these would have suited, or even been possible in a settled state of society. But no philosopher would ever have imagined or thought of such laws as some of the provisions in the Pentateuch. To select only a few, almost at random. Let the reader think of applying, for example, to England, such provisions as that all males were to appear three times a year in the place which the Lord would choose, or those connected with the Sabbatic and the Jubilee years, or those regulating religious and charitable contributions, or those concerning the corners of fields, or those prohibiting the taking of interest, or those connected with the Levitical cities. Then let any one seriously ask himself, whether such institutions could have been for the first time propounded or introduced by a legislator at the time of David, or of Hezekiah, or of Ezra? The more we think of the spirit and of the details of the Mosaic legislation, the stronger grows our conviction, that such laws and institutions could have been only introduced before the people actually settled in the land." (Alfred Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2003), 204.)


The first triad of days consisted of forming and separating; the second triad filling


Heb 11.3 tells us by faith, not by science, we understand the worlds were prepared by the word of God, and God reminds Job in Job 38.4 that he was not around when God laid the foundation of the earth.


Gen 1 is #33 of 929 for ratio of wayyiqtol to Perfect/Waw Perfect/Imperfect, LHB

Ge 1:1 Presidential quotes on the Bible

25 December 1813, In a Letter to Thomas Jefferson, John Adams (2nd POTUS) wrote “I believe the Bible is the best book in the world. It contains more philosophy than all the libraries I have seen” (L.J. Capon, ed., The Adams—Jefferson Letters (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1959), 2:412).


John Q. Adams (6th POTUS), “The first and almost the only Book deserving of universal attention is the Bible” (Robert Flood, The Rebirth of America (Philadelphia: Arthur S. DeMoss Foundation, 1986), p. 37).


Dwight Eisenhower, 34th POTUS, “The Bible is endorsed by the ages. Our civilization is built upon its words. In no other book is there such a collection of inspired wisdom, reality, and hope.” (Gary DeMar, The Untold Story (Atlanta, GA: American Vision, Inc., 1993), p. 60).


Rutherford B. Hayes (19th POTUS), “I am a firm believer in the Divine teachings, perfect example, and atoning sacrifice of Jesus Christ. I believe also in the Holy Scriptures as the revealed Word of God to the world for its enlightenment and salvation” (Stephen Abbott Northrop, A Cloud of Witnesses (Portland, Oregon: American Heritage Ministries, 198), p. 223).


Andrew Jackson (7th POTUS), 29 May 1845, in reference to the Bible, he said “Upon that sacred volume I rest my hope for eternal salvation, through the merits and blood of our blessed Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ” (Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom, 1822-1832 (New York: Harper and Row, 1981), p. 519). Again, 8 June 1845, in reference to the Bible, he said “That book, Sir, is the rock upon which our republic rests” (Gary DeMar, The Untold Story (Atlanta, GA: American Vision, Inc., 1993), p. 59).


Abraham Lincoln, 16th POTUS, said “I believe the Bible is the best gift God has given to man” (Stephen Abbott Northrop, A Cloud of Witnesses (Portland, Oregon: American Heritage Ministries, 198), p. 285).


William McKinley (25th POTUS), said “The more profoundly we study this wonderful Book, and the more closely we observe its divine precepts, the better citizens we will become and the higher will be our destiny as a nation” (Gary DeMar, The Untold Story (Atlanta, GA: American Vision, Inc., 1993), p. 60).


Ronald Reagan (40th POTUS), said 4 October 1982, “Renewing our knowledge of and faith in God through Holy Scripture can strengthen us as a nation and a people” (Public Law 97-280).


Theodore Roosevelt (26th POTUS), said “A thorough knowledge of the Bible is worth more than a college education” (Alfred Armand Montapert, Distilled Wisdom (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Inc., 1965), p. 36).


FDR, "I take pleasure in commending the reading of the Bible to all who serve in the armed forces of the United States." (The New Testament of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, Prepared for Use of Protestant Personnel of the Army of the United States (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1942), letter by Franklin Roosevelt inside front cover.)

Ge 1:1 Difference in arrangement between LXX and MT

The most extensive discrepancies in arrangement of materials (between the LXX and MT) occur in (1) Ex 35 through 39, the construction of the Tabernacle and the ornaments of its ministers, (2) 3 R 4 through 11, Solomon's reign, (3) Jeremiah (last half), (4) Proverbs (end).


Psalms

LXX/MT

1-8=1-8

9=9-10

10-112=11-113

113=114-115

114=116:1-9

115=116:10-19

116-145=117-146

146=147:1-11

147=147:12-20

148-150=148-150

Ge 1:1 Comparing Genesis and Revelation

From Genesis to Revelation

Gen 1:1, Heavens and earth created; Rev 20:11, Heavens and earth destroyed

Gen 1.3, Word of God; Rev 22.7, Word of God

Gen 1.5, Night; Rev 21.25, no more night

Gen 1:10, Seas created; Rev 21:1, No more sea

Gen 1.16, Sun and Moon; Rev 21.23, no more need for sun and moon

Gen 2.17, death instituted; Rev 21.4, no more death

Gen 3:1-7, beginning of Satan's reign; Rev 20:10, Satan cast into lake of fire

Gen 3:1-7, entrance of sin; Rev. 21:27, sin banished

Gen 3.16, pain ushered in; Rev 21.4, no more pain

Gen 3:17-19, curse on creation; Rev 22:3, curse removed

Gen 3:24, right to tree of life forfeited; Rev 22:2, 19, access to tree of life restored

Gen 3:24, eviction from Garden of Eden; Rev 22:7, welcomed back to paradise (Ezek 36.35)

Gen 2:17 and 5:5, death introduced; Rev 21:4, death removed

Gen 4:1, marriage of first Adam; Rev 19:7, marriage of last Adam

Gen 3:16, sorrow comes to mankind; Rev 21:4, sorrow eliminated

also see Gen 1.29-30 and Is 65.25, all animals herbivores


Furthermore, Gen 2 and 3 are over-represented in MT for "yhwh elohim" (16% of all occurrences); Rev is over-represented with "kurios theos" (80% of all occurrences); Psalm 103 (and 105) has YHWH as Savior and Redeemer while Psalm 104 has Elohim as Creator and Sustainer; Gen 1.30, all animals were herbivores--Is 65.25, all animals will again be herbivores in the kingdom

Ge 1:1

The Accounts (toledot):

1. Creation (1:1–2:3)

2. Ṭôleḏôṯ of the heavens and the earth (2:4–4:26)

3. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Adam (5:1–6:8)

4. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Noah (6:9–9:29)

5. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Shem, Ham, and Japheth (10:1–11:9)

6. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Shem (11:10–26)

7. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Terah (11:27–25:11)

8. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Ishmael (25:12–18)

9. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Isaac (25:19–35:29)

10. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Esau (36:1–8)

11. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Esau, father of the Edomites (36:9–37:1)

12. Ṭôleḏôṯ of Jacob (37:2–50:26)

(Allen P. Ross, "Genesis", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 22.

Ge 1:2

Is 45.18, God did not create the earth a waste place; Jer 4.23 ; Ps 104.5-6; springs would well up from the earth and water the whole surface of the ground (Gen 2.6)

Ge 1:3–27

Neh 9.6 ; there are no quotation marks in the originals; 1Cor 15.39-41 ; Rev 21.23, shekinah?; see also Ps 104.2, where God covers Himself with light; the difference between or and ma'or; Is 45.7 ; Acts 26.13, brighter than the sun; Rev 1.16, His face was like the sun shining

Ge 1:5

"The term yom with an ordinal (first, second, etc.) adjective means 24-hour days wherever this construction occurs in the Old Testament. Also the normal understanding of the fourth commandment (Ex. 20:11) would suggest this interpretation" (John F. Walvoord et al., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), Ge 1:3–5.); whenever the words "morning" or "evening" are used in connection with the word "day," it always refers to a 24-hour period.

Ge 1:6

Total global water-332,500,000 cubic miles

Total global fresh water-8,404,000 cubic miles (2.50% of all global water)

Total atmospheric water-3,094 cubic miles (0.04% of all fresh water, and 0.001% of all global water; would cover the earth with 1" of water)

(Gleick, P. H., 1996: Water resources. In Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, ed. by S. H. Schneider, Oxford University Press, New York, vol. 2, pp.817-823)

Ge 1:9

Job 38.10-11, boundaries; Jer 5.22, Ps 104.9, Prov 8.29

Ge 1:11–12

But this vegetation would still need rain and man to cultivate the ground (Gen 2.5); the earth brings forth vegetation, while God formed life from the dust (moves, breathes, has blood)

Ge 1:16 Purpose of Starlight

Ps 8.3, proof of God's love

Ps 19.1, demonstration of God's glory

Ps 136.9, light and guidance

Is 40.26, proof for God's existence

Jer 31.35, light at night

Lk 21.25, for signs

Ge 1:16

"Made" is not the word "bara" here; Ps 8.3

Ge 1:20–22

Fish left out of flood, naming by Adam, and plants for food

Ge 1:25 After his kind

This is common throughout creation: “after his kind.” The writer of Genesis did not believe life evolved from a common ancestral gene pool; Legend has it that when asked by a theologian what the living world could tell us about a creator, biologist J.B.S. Haldane remarked that, “If He exists the creator has an inordinate fondness for beetles.” In his writings, Haldane, who died in 1964, noted that there are 300,000 species of beetles and only 10,000 species of mammals

Ge 1:26 The Trinity

Other Trinity verses: Gen 3.22, Gen 11.7, Ps 45.6-7, Ps 110.1, Prov 8.22-31, Is 6.8, Is 48.16, Is 61.1-3, Is 63.10, Dan 7.13, Hos 1.7, Mal 3.1-2, Mt 3.16, Mt 12.18, Mt 12.28, Matt 22.41-46, Mt 28.19, Lk 2.26, Lk 10.21, Lk 23.46, Jn 14.15-17 , Jn 14.26, Jn 15.26, Acts 2.32-33, Acts 2.38-39, Acts 7.55, Acts 10.38, Acts 11.16-17, Acts 20.21-22, Rom 1.4, Rom 5.5-6, Rom 8.2-3, Rom 14.17-18, Rom 15.16, Rom 15.30, 1Cor 2.2-5, 1 Cor 2.11, 1 Cor 6.11, 1 Cor 12.3-6, 2 Cor 1.21-22, 2 Cor 13.14, Gal 4.6, Eph 1.3, Eph 1.13-14, Eph 1.17, Eph 2.18, Eph 2.21, Eph 3.14-17, Ephesians 4:4-6, Philippians 3.3, Colossians 1:6-8, 1Thessalonians 1:3-5, 1 Thes 5.18-19, 2Thes 2.13-14, Titus 3:4-6, Heb 1.8, Heb 9.14, 1 Pet 1.2, 1 Pet 3.18 , 1 Pet 4.13-14, 1Jn 3.23-24, 1Jn 4.2-3, 1 Jn 4.12 , Jude 20-21, Rev.1.9-10 , Rev 19.10 ; Trinity in Romans, "Love of..."-8.38 (Christ), 9.1 (God), 15.20 (Spirit); In John, 14.20 (Christ), 23 (Father), 26 (Spirit); Unholy trinity in Rev 16.13

Ge 1:26 Imago Dei

Col 3.10; Ps 8.6-8; 2Cor 4.4 and Col 1.15; Imago Dei—we were designed in such a way that the world cannot satisfy us...we long for something otherworldly; "Men create gods after their own image, not only with regard to their form but with regard to their mode of life. " -Aristotle; the average longevity of the antediluvian patriarchs was 912 years.


"Being in God’s image means that humans share, though imperfectly and finitely, in God’s nature, that is, in His communicable attributes (life, personality, truth, wisdom, love, holiness, justice), and so have the capacity for spiritual fellowship with Him" (John F. Walvoord et al., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), Ge 1:24–31)


Created on the 6th day (number of man)


"Man, made in the image of God, enjoying sovereignty over the creatures of the earth, and observing the Sabbath rest of God, had a blessed beginning" (Allen P. Ross, "Genesis", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 24)


Heb 1.3, Imago Dei; Rom 7.17, believers live below their world view, unbelievers above theirs; Same word (eikon) as Mt 22.20


Harry Truman (33rd POTUS), 20 January 1949, Second Inaugural Address: “We believe that all men are created equal because they are created in the image of God” (Proclaim Liberty (Dallas, TX: Word of Faith), p. 2).

Ge 1:26 Covenants

Eternal covenant, Heb 13:20—The redemptive covenant before time began, between the Father and the Son. By this covenant we have eternal redemption, an eternal peace from the ‘God of peace’, through the death and resurrection of the Son.

Edenic covenant, Gen 1:26-28—The creative covenant between the Triune God, as the first party (Gen 1:26), and newly created man, as the second party, governing man’s creation and life in Edenic innocence. It regulated man’s dominion and subjugation of the earth, and presented a simple test of obedience. The penalty was death.

Adamic covenant, Gen 3:14-19—The covenant conditioning fallen man’s life on the earth. Satan’s tool (the serpent) was cursed (Gen 3:14); the first promise of the Redeemer was given (3:15); women’s status was altered (3:16); the earth was cursed (3:17-19); physical and spiritual death resulted (3:19).

Noahic covenant, Gen 8:20-9:6—The covenant of human government. Man is to govern his fellowmen for God, indicated by the institution of capital punishment as the supreme judicial power of the state (Gen 9:5-6). Other features included the promise of redemption through the line of Shem (Gen 9:26 ).

Abrahamic covenant, Gen 12:1-3; confirmed, 13:14-17; 15:1-7; 17:1-8—The covenant of promise. Abraham’s posterity was to be made a great nation. In him (through Christ) all the families of the earth were to be blessed (Gal 3:16; Jn 8:56-58).

Mosaic covenant, Ex 20:1-31:18—The legal covenant, given solely to Israel. It consisted of the commandments (Ex 20:1-26); the judgments (social) - (Ex 21:1; 24:11) and the ordinances (religious); (Ex 24:12-31:18); also called the law. It was a conditional covenant of works, a ministry of ‘condemnation’ and ‘death’ (2 Cor 3:7-9), designed to lead the transgressor (convicted thereby as a sinner) to Christ.

Palestinian covenant, Deut 30:1-10—The covenant regulating Israel’s tenure of the land of Canaan. Its prophetic features include dispersion of disobedience (Deut 30:1), future repentance while in dispersion (30:2), the Lord’s return (30:3), the restoration (30:4-5), national conversion (3:6), judgment of Israel’s foes (30:7), national prosperity (30:9). Its blessings are conditioned upon obedience (30:8, 10), but fulfillment is guaranteed by the new covenant.

Davidic covenant, 2 Sam 7:4-17, 1 Chr 17:4-15—The kingdom covenant regulating the temporal and eternal rule of David’s posterity. It secures in perpetuity a Davidic ‘house’ or line, a throne, and a kingdom. It was confirmed by divine oath in Ps 89:30-37 and renewed to Mary in Lk 1:31-33. It is fulfilled in Christ as the World’s Saviour and Israel’s coming King (Acts 1:6; Rev 19:16; 20:4-6).

New covenant, Jer 31:31-33; Mt 26:28; Mk 14:24; Lk 22:20; Heb 8:8-12—The covenant of unconditional blessing based upon the finished redemption of Christ. It secures blessing for the church, flowing from the Abrahamic covenant (Gal 3:13-20), and secures all covenant blessings to converted Israel, including those of the Abrahamic, Palestinian, and Davidic covenants. This covenant is unconditional, final and irreversible.

From The New Unger’s Bible Handbook, Merrill F. Unger, Revised by Gary N. Larson, Moody Press, Chicago, 1984, p. 595.

Ge 1:27

For this reason, we are more valuable than creatures not made in God's image (Mt 10.31); God did this from the dust of the ground, and man became a living being after God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life (Gen 2.7); Rom 8.29, we are predestined to become conformed to the image (eikon) of His Son; God knew He would be using this scripture as the Son (Mt 19.4)

Ge 1:30

It seems as though the first humans, as well as beasts, were restricted to vegetation for sustenance until Gen 9.3 (and will be that way in the kingdom, Is 65.25 and Is 11.6-9)

Ge 1:31

Fish, Birds, Beasts, Man:

-Gen 1 is heavens, waters below and above, land (fish, birds, beasts, man)

-Gen 1.28, fish, birds, beast

-Gen 9.2, beast, bird, fish

-Dt 14.4-20, beasts, fish, birds

-1K 4.33, animals, birds, fish

-Ezek 29.5, fish, beasts, birds

-Ezek 38.20, fish, birds, beasts

-Hos 4.3, beasts, birds, fish

-Zeph 1.3, man, beast, birds, fish

-1Cor 15.39, men, beasts, birds, fish

Ge 1:31

The first three days were spent creating space (the void of space, sky and seas, land), while the next three days God filled those spaces (heavenly bodies, birds and fish, beasts and man) (see Rev 10.6) ; (1) Genesis 1 is a general survey of the six days of creation, and Genesis 2 is a more detailed account of the sixth day of creation. (2) The name Elohim is used consistently in Genesis 1, because it emphasizes God’s work as Creator, while the name Yahweh is used throughout Genesis 2 to underline the covenant relationship He establishes with man.

Ge 2:1 yhwh elohim

Gen 2 and 3 total more than 16% of all places in MT for "yhwh elohim" (like Rev, over-represented with "kurios theos"); Psalm 103 has YHWH as Savior and Redeemer while Psalm 104 has Elohim as Creator and Sustainer

Ge 2:2

Ex 20.11, God made everything in 6 days, and rested on the 7th

Ge 2:4–7

"The arrangement in these verses includes a title (v. 4), three circumstantial clauses beginning in the Hebrew with 'when' ('when' no shrub … had yet appeared, 'when' there was no man to work the ground, 'when' streams … watered the … ground), and the verb beginning the narrative (and [He] formed). This mirrors chapter 1 (title, 1:1; circumstantial clauses, 1:2; and the first of the narrative verbs, 1:3)" (Allen P. Ross, Genesis, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 30)

Ge 2:4 yhwh

Here, through the rest of the chapter, the Tetragrammaton (YHWH) is used in conjunction with Elohim, since the creation of man is described in more detail and is more personal in nature; "Genesis 1 describes the creation of the universe and climaxes with the creation of man. Genesis 2 concentrates on the creation of man and climaxes with the institution of marriage. The first chapter portrays God as powerful (the name Elohim is used of God as the creator); the second chapter portrays God as personal (the name Yahweh is used of God as the covenant-keeper)" (Ken Boa, Marriage).


The Old Testament frequently joins the description of the Lord as Law-Giver and Creator. Accordingly in the first part of this p, ’ēl (“God”) is used (v. 1) to denote His power as the Creator, and in the second part, Yahweh (“the Lord”) is used (vv. 7–9, 14), the personal name by which He made Himself known as Israel’s covenant God" (Allen P. Ross, Psalms, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 807)

Ge 2:5 Possible solutions to harmonizing this verse with Gen 1.11

Genesis 1-chronological

Genesis 2-topical


Gen 1-creation of plants

Gen 2-reproduction of plants


Gen 1-vegetation in general

Gen 2-vegetation which requires cultivation


Gen 1-eretz refers to garden

Gen 2-eretz refers to earth at large

Man did not have to cultivate the ground for food before the Fall (Gen 2.15 refers to Adam cultivating the Garden of Eden, not the ground outside)

Ge 2:7

The body without the spirit is dead, James 2.26

Ge 2:8

Ezek 36.35, the garden of Eden

Ge 2:17

Gen 9.4, Noah was given one prohibition, also; Job 38.11, the sea obeys God; Gen 3.19, he was to return to dust; "knowledge of good and evil" is same Hebrew construction as Dt 1.39, innocent children

Ge 2:18

God created a sense of need in the man by having him name the animals and so that he would discover that none of them fully corresponded to him. Then from his side God fashioned a new creature that was wonderfully different and yet perfectly complemented him on a spiritual, intellectual, emotional, and physical level. Loneliness was replaced by companionship and completion, and this is central to God's design for marriage. The concept of "a helper suitable for him" (vss. 18,20) speaks of a supportive relationship between allies and in no way implies that one is inferior to another (ontological equality, economic subordination)

Ge 2:20

Notice the use of "field' here, instead of "earth"

Ge 2:21

Gen 15.12, a sleep fell upon him

Ge 2:24

God knew He would be using this scripture as the Son (Mt 19.5)

Ge 2:24 Marriage

Commander's Intent


Marriage begins as an Ideal, works into an Ordeal, and sometimes ends with a New Deal; first there was the Dating Game, then came the Newlywed Game, then followed Divorce Court; Compare Ezek 16 and adultery; Relationships succumb to 2LOT just like anything else (leave, cleave, become one flesh)


The word used in God's mandate for a man to "cleave to his wife" entails the idea of holding fast, of clinging, and of being glued or welded together. There are many external and internal forces (children, sex, in-laws, money, power struggle, communication, neglect, opposite sex attractions) that would threaten to sever this bond, but a Christian couple makes a solemn vow to cling together through troubled as well as calm waters. As they renew this vow, implement the principles of Scripture, and depend on God's grace, their relationship can continue to grow in spite of contrary circumstances. Cleaving also means that the relationship between a husband and wife is to be second only to their relationship with the Lord (love the Lord first, and you will love your spouse more). Their marriage is to have priority over everything else, including children, career, hobbies, friends, and ministry. As I have found God, and yet continue to pursue Him, so I have found Sherry, and yet continue to pursue her.


Polygamy, adultery, promiscuity, and divorce distort God's purpose for marriage (cf. Prov. 5:15-23; 6:32; Mal. 2:16) because they minimize its permanency and commitment (Satan cannot create...he can only twist what God has created).


Men marry women hoping they don’t change and they do; Women marry men hoping they do change and they don’t


Women worry about the future until they get a husband; Men never worry about the future until they get a wife


"Jesus’ moral teaching about marriage was based on His teaching about God’s joining a literal Adam and Eve together in marriage (Matt. 19:4–5). The moral or theological teaching is devoid of its intended meaning apart from the historical or factual space-time event. If one denies that the literal space-time event occurred, then there is no basis for believing the scriptural doctrine built upon it" (Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 59)


Cleave is same word for "holding fast" in Dt 30.20, and "cling" in Dt 13.4 (holding fast and clinging to God; Jn 6.68)


One, ehad, same word in Dt 6.4, "The LORD is one"


Jn 17.17, sanctification and justification are much like marriage and the wedding...one is a process, the other, an event


The Bible begins and ends with marriage (Rev 21.2)

Ge 3:1

Satan and Demons (focusing all their energy on one couple), Rev 20.2 and Mk 5.13; The enemy cannot invent a pleasure. All he can do is to encourage us to use them in the wrong way, for the wrong purpose, by the wrong means, and with the wrong amount; Gen 2 and 3 total more 16% of all places in MT for "yhwh elohim"; "The motifs in chapter 3—death, toil, sweat, thorns, the tree, the struggle, and the seed—all were later traced to Christ. He is the other Adam, who became the curse, who sweat great drops of blood in bitter agony, who wore a crown of thorns, who was hanged on a tree until He was dead, and who was placed in the dust of death" (John F. Walvoord et al., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), Ge 3:8–13); 2Pet 3.16, Satan twists scripture (1K 13.18) ; Acts 17.11, they checked out the scripture to see if Paul was on target; 1Jn 4.1, believe not every spirit, but test them; 1K 22.22, Micaiah and the deceiving spirits; notice, Satan drops "LORD" from God, and reverses the order of authority (Eve leads Adam, and both tell God what they are going to do; Germany, Kinder, Küche, Kirche); vv 7-8, spiritual death--vv 17-19, physical death

Ge 3:3

Study and know what God says (2Tim 2.15)

Ge 3:4 Satan's Counterfeits

Satan’s Counterfeits

1. He has a false trinity, Rev. 13:2; 16:13

2. He has his synagogues, Rev. 2:9

3. He has his doctrines, 1 Tim. 4:1

4. He has his mysteries, Rev. 2:24; 2 Thess. 2:7

5. He has his throne, Rev. 2:13; 13:2

6. He has his kingdom, Luke 4:6

7. He has his worshipers, Rev. 13:4

8. He has his angels, Rev. 12:7

9. He has his ministers, 2 Cor. 11:15; 1K 13.33

10. He has his miracles, 2 Thess 2:9; Matt. 7:21-23

11. He has his sacrifices, 1 Cor. 10:20; 1K 12.33 (and incense)

12. He has his fellowship, 1 Cor. 10:20; 1K 12.32, alternative feasts

13. He has his armies, Isa. 24:21; Rev. 14:14-17; 16:16

14. He sows tares among God’s wheat, Matt. 13:24-30, 36-43

15. He instigates false doctrine, 1 Tim. 4:1-3

16. He perverts the Word of God, Gen. 3:1-4

17. He has counterfeit Christians 2 Cor. 11:26

18. He has a counterfeit Gospel Gal. 1:6–9

19. He offers a counterfeit righteousness Rom. 10:1–3

Ge 3:4 Sin

Sin always reveals its pleasures…never its consequences; "All carnal joy begins sweetly but in the end brings remorse and death" (Thomas a` Kempis, The Imitation of Christ (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996), 38); Satan wants you to believe God does not have your best interest at heart...that He is holding back on you; (The truth of Scripture is to be found in what the Bible reveals not in everything it records" (Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 58); First Satan questions the Word of God, then he denies it

Ge 3:5

Satan wants us to think God is holding back on us...that He is not "fair" (Mt 20:11-12; 1Cor 10.14 ) ; You will be like God (Is 14.14)

Ge 3:6

1Jn 2.16; Mt 4.3-9 ; The enemy cannot invent a pleasure. All he can do is to encourage us to use them in the wrong way, for the wrong purpose, by the wrong means, and with the wrong amount; according to Gen 2.9, trees were already ‎pleasing to the sight and good for food...Satan just added that last component of making one wise; D.L Moody’s Bible: “This book will keep you from sin, or sin will keep you from this book."; humans are by nature arrogant, independent, and autonomous; "Adam’s existence and fall cannot be a myth. If there were no literal Adam and actual fall, then the spiritual teaching about inherited sin and eventual or physical death (Rom. 5:12) are wrong (see Jn 3.12 )" (Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 59); She saw; she coveted; she took (2Sam 11.2-4; Joshua 7.21)

Ge 3:7

‎"They were stripped, deprived of all the honours and joys of their paradise-state, and exposed to all the miseries that might justly be expected from an angry God" (Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry’s Commentary on the Whole Bible: Complete and Unabridged in One Volume (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1994), Ge 3:6–8): They made a counterfeit to God's provision (Jer 2.13); Jer 46.11 ; Sin always reveals its pleasures, never its consequences; they attempted to get ahead of God, like Abram in Gen 16.4, and Moses in Ex 2.12; see also Ex 32.1-4 ; Mt 4.9, Jesus refused to get ahead of God; we have to approach God on His terms, not on our terms, Dt 1.41-45 ; God had to reconcile us to Him (Col 1.20, Eph 2.16, 2Cor 5.18-21, Mt 27.51; Lk 18.11-12); Rom 2.15, their conscience bearing witness to the work of the Law; 1Sam 12.20-21, Samuel encouraged the people to not go after futile things, but return to the Lord

Ge 3:7 Alienation

Led to four alienations: alienation from God (Ps), from ourselves (Ecc), from others (Prov), and from the natural world

Ge 3:8 Hiding from God

Rev 20.11; This is our natural state as unbelievers: to hide from God. As C.S. Lewis has said, the gates of hell are locked from the inside. The wrath of God merely ratifies and confirms “judgments which those whom He ‘visits’ have already passed on themselves by the course they have chosen to follow.” (J.I. Packer, Knowing God, IVP Books, Downers Grove, IL, 1993, p. 153); God made it so we could draw near with confidence, Heb 4.16; 1Jn 2.28; Others who recognized God’s holiness: Isaiah, Is 6.5; Centurion, Mt 8.8; Job, Job 40.4, 42.5-6; Peter, Lk 5.8

Ge 3:9

God looks for us, none seek after God (Ps 14.2; 1Jn 4.10; Ezek 34.11) ; the Hound of Heaven; Lk 19.10; first recorded question by Jesus, "What do you seek?" (Jn 1.38) ; Lk 15.20, the father ran to his son; Mt 27.51, curtain torn from top to bottom; Rev 20.11, no place was found for them to escape Him

Ge 3:11

Verses 11-19 form a chiasmus

Ge 3:12–13 The Blame Game

-Adam (blamed God and eve; Gen 3.12)

-Eve (blamed the serpent; Gen 3.13)

-Aaron (blamed Moses, the fire, and the gold; Ex 32.23-24)

-Saul (blamed the Samuel, God, and the people; 1Sam 15.21)

Ge 3:14–19

"These punishments represent retaliatory justice. Adam and Eve sinned by eating; they would suffer in order to eat. She manipulated her husband; she would be mastered by her husband. The serpent destroyed the human race; he will be destroyed" (John F. Walvoord et al., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), Ge 3:14–19)

Ge 3:15 Annihilation or Assimilation

1Jn 3.8; Ps 91.13; Rom 11.26; Rom 16.20; Rev 12.4; Ps 83.4; Esther 3.6; Frederick the Great (1712-86), a skeptic, once asked his chaplain, "Can you give me any good evidence that God exists?" The chaplain answered, "Yes, the Jews!"


Satan has tried to annihilate Israel to no avail (so he attempted to assimilate, Dt 20:16-18, Nu 25.1, Neh 4.11/6.2) . The powerful Pharaoh tried it and failed (all male children). Even ten plagues were not enough to convince him to stop (Feast of Passover). Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, gave it a shot, as well as Assyria. Persia produced Haman (Purim). And, of course, Antiochus Epiphanes, the king of Syria, failed in his attempt, resulting in the celebration of Chanukah. Then there was the Roman army in the first century and the Crusaders in the 11th century, just to name a few more. There were expulsions of Jews from England in 1290, France in 1306 and 1394, Hungary in 1349, Austria in 1421, Germany in the 14th and 16th centuries, Lithuania in 1445, Spain in 1492, Portugal in 1497, Bohemia and Moravia in 1744, among others. And throughout history there have been numerous pogroms, mass killings, threats, etc. The year 1948 should have opened up a new era for Jews. Only three years after the closest attempt at total Jewish annihilation (Holocaust), where two out of every three Jewish babies, teenagers, adults and elderly were given a bullet in the head, purposeful starvation, disease, burial alive/dead in a pit with fellow Jewish townspeople or gas chambers, one would think the world would put the idea of Jewish destruction to rest, at least for a while. No way! Hence, another opportunity arose. Put the Jews into a barren little place that no one really wants except them. Every one of the countries surrounding this barren wasteland hates Jews with a passion. So, either the cruel desert will kill them or the Arabs will. Only this time, the Europeans won't have to lend a "bloody" hand. Europe certainly knew that after a Jewish state was declared, all surrounding Arab countries would attack the army-less Jews immediately. Survival would be impossible, just through sheer numbers. In fact, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq and Saudi Arabia invaded this pathetic group of already emaciated Jews struggling for survival. Azzam Pasha, secretary general of the Arab League boldly declared, "This will be a war of extermination."


Jewish Hatred and Murder Attempts on the Life of Jesus Christ:

Matthew 2:16 - As a child Herod tried to kill Him.

Matthew 12:14, Mark 3:6 - Pharisees held a council with the Herodians to discuss destroying Jesus because He healed a man on the Sabbath day.

Luke 4:28-30 - Attempted to throw Him off the hill because of His sermon.

John 5:16 - The Jews persecuted Jesus and sought to kill Him for healing the impotent man on the Sabbath day.

John 5:18 - Jews sought to kill Jesus because He claimed equality with God.

John 7:30-32 - The Jewish plot to arrest Jesus with intent to kill Him for claiming He was from God.

John 7:25 - It was common knowledge that the Jews sought to kill Jesus.

John 7:40-44 - Some people desired to arrest Jesus with intent to kill Him.

John 8:59 - Jews attempted to kill Jesus by stoning Him for claiming that He was God.

John 10:31 - The Jews again attempt to kill Jesus by stoning for claiming His Deity.

John 10:39 - The Jews sought to take Jesus for proving His Deity.

John 11:47 - The chief priests and Pharisees plot against Jesus.

John 11:53-54 - The Jews make a determined effort to kill Jesus.

John 11:55-57 - The Jews sought Jesus even at the Passover Feast.

John 12:9-11 - The Jews even desire to kill Lazarus because of their hatred for Jesus.

John 18:3, 10, 12 - Jesus was arrested by Jewish soldiers.

John 18:13-14 - Jesus was tried by Jewish leaders who had already decided on his guilt.

John 18:36 - Jesus acknowledges that it was the Jews who would kill Him.

John 18:38-40, 19:1-7, 12-15 - The Jews are adamant in their desire to kill Jesus.

John 19:11 - Jesus acknowledges a lesser and a greater sin in those who condemned Him to death.

John 19:16-18 - The Jews led Jesus away to be crucified.

Ge 3:16 Male Headship in the Home

Ten Reasons Showing Male Headship in Marriage Before the Fall (Wayne Grudem):

1. The Order: Adam was created first, then Eve (Genesis 2:7, 18-23).

2. The representation: Adam, not Eve, had a special role in representing the human race. 1 Cor. 15:22: For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive.

3. The naming of woman:  Adam named Eve: Gen. 2:23:

4. The naming of the human race: (Gen 5:1-2) God named the human race “Man,” not “Woman” or “Humanity”

5. The Primary Accountability: God spoke to Adam first after the Fall. (Gen 3:9)

6. The purpose: Eve was created as a helper for Adam, not Adam as a helper for Eve. Gen 2:18: “Then the Lord God said, “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him helper (Hebrew ‘ezer) fit for him” (Genesis 2:18).

7. The Conflict: The curse brought a distortion of previous roles, not the introduction of new roles. Gen. 3:16 To the woman he said, "I will surely multiply your pain in childbearing; in pain you shall bring forth children. Your desire shall be for [or: against] (teshuqah + el) your husband, and he shall rule over you." (see same words on Gen. 4:7)

8. The Restoration: Salvation in Christ reaffirms the creation order. (Col 3:18-19)

9. The Mystery: Marriage from the beginning of creation was a picture of the relationship between Christ and the church. (Eph 5:31)

10. The parallel with the Trinity: The equality, differences, and unity between men and women reflect the equality, differences and unity in the Trinity (1Cor 11.3, 7-9, male headship [economic subordination]; 1Cor 11.11-12, ontological equality)

Ge 3:16

Gen 4.18, from Enoch to Lamech ; we have attempted to circumvent this with the epidural

Ge 3:17–18

The difference between what creation could be and what it is, is the difference between Jesus and you; Rom 8.19-22; Jesus reversed the curse--His death reconciled us to God; all creation is subject to the curse, but the curse will be lifted (Rev 22.3)

Ge 3:18

Heb 6.8, unproductive land a result (and picture) of disobedience; Mt 5.16

Ge 3:19

Gen 2.17, God told him he would die if he disobeyed; Ecc 12.7, dust returns to the earth; Ps 104.29; Ps 146.4

Ge 3:21

2Cor 5.2, we long to be clothed in righteousness; Gen 12.1 and Gen 15.17, God called Abram to be for Himself, and then performed the work alone ; 2Cor 5.21, we took on Christ's covering, and He took ours; Lk 18.13, tax collector understood his need to be clothed by God; Note, God made it clear that it was not by man's effort that man would ever reach God, but God had to make a way for He Himself to reach man; we don't approach God on our terms...we approach Him on His terms (Gen 17.19); this may very well be the first living creature to die (see Gen 1.30 and Gen 9.3)

Ge 3:22

Plurality of God; Rev 22.14, tree of life; an act of grace

Ge 3:24 Discipline

Genesis on Discipline

1. God set boundaries

2. God looked for them after the disobedience

3. God had them confess

4. God established a punishment/enforced standards

5. God provided a remedy

6. God deterred future violations

Ge 4:7

Sin/Satan is constantly seeking dominion over you: Rom 6.12 ; Gen 3.16 ; Job 1.11; Lk 22.31; Ps 19.13

Ge 4:8

Brothers in conflict: Cain and Abel, Jacob and Esau, Joseph and Reuben, Jesus and His siblings--older passed over in favor of younger

Ge 4:10

Nu 35.33, human blood pollutes the land

Ge 5:1

Top chapter in ratio of Wayyiqtol to Perfect/Waw Perfect/Imperfect, LHB (as well as top aorist in ratio to other verbs, Rahlfs LXX)

Ge 5:24

"At the end, The Blessed will say, 'We have never lived anywhere except in Heaven.' The lost, 'We were always in Hell.' Both will speak truly." (C.S. Lewis); Jude 14-15, prophecy of Enoch

Ge 6:3

God does not always strive with mankind: Ps 103.9 ; Is 55.6 ; 2Pet 3.9 ; 2Cor 6.2 ; Acts 13.46 ; Rom 1.28-31

Ge 6:5

The heart is evil: Gen 8.21; Jer 17.9; Mt 15.19

Ge 6:6–7

Sometimes God regrets what He did: 1Sam 15.35 (although, regret may not mean the same to God as it does to us); see also Jonah 3.10 and Jer 18.7-10 ; James 1.17, God does not change

Ge 6:6

God Repented:

-Gen 6:6, The LORD was sorry that He had made man on the earth, and He was grieved in His heart.

-Exod 32:14, So the LORD changed His mind about the harm which He said He would do to His people.

-1 Sam 15:35, Samuel did not see Saul again until the day of his death; for Samuel grieved over Saul. And the LORD regretted that He had made Saul king over Israel.

-2 Sam 24:16, When the angel stretched out his hand toward Jerusalem to destroy it, the LORD relented from the calamity and said to the angel who destroyed the people, “It is enough! Now relax your hand!” And the angel of the LORD was by the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite.

-Isa 49:13, Shout for joy, O heavens! And rejoice, O earth! Break forth into joyful shouting, O mountains! For the LORD has comforted His people And will have compassion on His afflicted.

-Isa 51:3, Indeed, the LORD will comfort Zion; He will comfort all her waste places. And her wilderness He will make like Eden, And her desert like the garden of the LORD; Joy and gladness will be found in her, Thanksgiving and sound of a melody.

-Isa 52:9, Break forth, shout joyfully together, You waste places of Jerusalem; For the LORD has comforted His people, He has redeemed Jerusalem.

-Jer 20:16, But let that man be like the cities Which the LORD overthrew without relenting, And let him hear an outcry in the morning And a shout of alarm at noon;

-Jer 26:13, “Now therefore amend your ways and your deeds and obey the voice of the LORD your God; and the LORD will change His mind about the misfortune which He has pronounced against you.

-Jer 26:19, “Did Hezekiah king of Judah and all Judah put him to death? Did he not fear the LORD and entreat the favor of the LORD, and the LORD changed His mind about the misfortune which He had pronounced against them? But we are committing a great evil against ourselves.”

-Amos 7:3, The LORD changed His mind about this. “It shall not be,” said the LORD.

-Amos 7:6, The LORD changed His mind about this. “This too shall not be,” said the Lord GOD.

-Jonah 3:10, When God saw their deeds, that they turned from their wicked way, then God relented concerning the calamity which He had declared He would bring upon them. And He did not do it.

-Zech 1:17, “Again, proclaim, saying, ‘Thus says the LORD of hosts, “My cities will again overflow with prosperity, and the LORD will again comfort Zion and again choose Jerusalem.” ’ ”

Ge 6:8

2Chr 16.9, God's eyes are looking for those whose heart is completely His (notice Gen 6.22, Noah did all that God commanded him to do)

Ge 6:22

Which is why in Gen 6.8, Noah found favor in the eyes of the LORD

Ge 7:10–12

Ex 24.16-18, 7 days and 40 days/nights with Moses ; "In the same way that Jesus closely associated the literal truth about Himself with that of Jonah (Mt 12.40) , He also connected the truth of His literal second coming (cf. Acts 1:10, 11) to the literal truth about Noah’s flood. He said, 'The coming of the Son of Man will be just like the days of Noah' (Matt 24:37). Both the content and emphasis of these comparisons reveal that Jesus believed in the historicity of those Old Testament events (see Jn 3.12 ) " (Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible, Rev. and expanded. (Chicago: Moody Press, 1986), 60)

Ge 7:16

Mt 24.37 and Mt 25.10, the last days like the days of Noah, the door was shut

Ge 7:23

Josh 2.19, a clear distinction between who is safe and who is not; 1Jn 5.12; Acts 27.31

Ge 8:1

Key work in this chapter is "rest"

Ge 8:18

Heb 11.7-8, "That God does reward those who seek Him is suggested by the career of Noah who became an heir of righteousness by faith. What he inherited was, in fact, the new world after the Flood as the readers might inherit “the world to come” (cf. 2:5; you could say the same of Abraham."(Zane C. Hodges, Hebrews, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 2 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 808)

Ge 8:21

The heart is evil, Gen 6.5; Jer 17.9 ; Mt 15.19

Ge 9:3

Rom 14.2, some insist on eating vegetables only; Gen 1.29-30 , God had given them plants for food

Ge 9:4

Gen 2.17, Adam was given one prohibition, also; Acts 15.20

Ge 9:6

Rom 13.4, institution of government

Ge 9:7

Gen 11.4 ("‎and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth")

Ge 9:18

Five generations after the flood...Babel

Ge 9:25

Dt 6.18-19; Nu 33.51-54, the Canaanites would prepare the promised land for his brother to take over later (Gen 17.8; Dt 20.11, serve-avad); see also Gen 15.18-21, 1Chr 1.13-16 and Dt 7.1 (Canaan's family prepares the land for the Israelites); Lev 18.3-20 describes the moral depravity of the Canaanites; Solomon would use the Canaanites as forced laborers (1K 9.20-21) ; Josh 9.23

Ge 10:8

Gen 36.9, Esau; Secular, worldly greatness comes swifter than spiritual greatness

Ge 11:1–9 Chiasmus

Verses 1-9 forms a Chiasmus (people coming together, building, the LORD comes down, stops the building, and disperses the people); Ezra 9, how soon the world can bring down the righteous (early descendants of Noah)

Ge 11:4

Gen 9.7 ("increase greatly on the earth and multiply in it"); Make "ourselves" a name, rather than God making their name great (Gen 12.2)

Ge 11:7

Plurality of God

Ge 11:9

"The undoing of Babel was cleverly explained by Zephaniah, whose terms certainly retraced this event, anticipating the great unification in the millennial kingdom, when everyone will speak one pure language and worship in God’s holy mountain, being gathered from the nations into which they have been dispersed (Zeph. 3:9-11). The miracle at Pentecost (Acts 2:6-11) was a harbinger of that yet-future event" (John F. Walvoord et al., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), Ge 11:5–9)

Ge 11:10

"This section (11:10–26) forms another transition in the book, narrowing the choice from the line of Shem to Abram. This list traces the line from Noah to Abram within the blessings of prosperity and posterity (whereas chap. 5 traced the line from Adam to Noah and the Flood). God would not leave the world to an expanding and divided population under the curse without hope; He would select a man and build a nation that would provide blessing for the earth" (Allen P. Ross, "Genesis", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 25)

Ge 11:26

Many historians were not convinced that society during the time of Abraham operated under a universal code of ethics, until Hammurabi's Code was discovered (Hammurabi, king of Babylon, 1792-1750 BCE). This artifact pointed to a well-developed system of jurisprudence and demonstrated that literary skills during that time had reached a remarkably advanced stage; Terah was an idolater, worshiping other gods (Josh. 24:2)

Ge 12:1–3

Abrahamic Covenant: Dt. 30:1-10-land, 2 Sam. 7:10-16-seed, Jer. 31:31-40-blessing; the Law, later given, did not nullify this covenant, because the covenant was a promise (Gal 3.17-18)

Ge 12:1

Gen 3.21 and 15.17 ; Note, God made it clear that it was not by man's effort that man would ever reach God, but God had to make a way for He Himself to reach man (covenant with Abram); Abraham was also told to go in Gen 22.2 ; Acts 7.2-4, he was told to go while in Ur

Ge 12:2

Gen 11.4, others attempted to make a name for themselves

Ge 12:3

John 10.16, other sheep; this is the gospel (Gal 3.8) ; Nu 24.9 and 22.6, blessed are all who bless you, cursed are all who curse you; fulfills Acts 1.8, to the remotest parts of the earth; If Israel had not slaughtered the Canaanites in Josh 6.21, all nations of the earth would NOT have been blessed through them; the Gospel, according to Gal 3.8

Ge 12:4

Why did Abram take Lot, when he was supposed to leave his relatives?

Ge 12:10 Trusting God

Others who did not trust God:

Jacob

Moses (Exodus 4:13)

Zechariah (Lk 1.18)


Parallelism between this sojourn of Abram in Egypt and the later event in the life of the nation in bondage in Egypt:

the famine in the land (12:10; 47:13)

the descent to Egypt to sojourn (12:10; 47:27)

the attempt to kill the males but save the females (12:12; Ex. 1:22)

the plagues on Egypt (Gen. 12:17; Ex. 7:14-11:10)

the spoiling of Egypt (Gen. 12:16; Ex. 12:35-36)

the deliverance (Gen. 12:19; Ex. 15)

the ascent to the Negev (Gen. 13:1; Num. 13:17, 22)

(John F. Walvoord et al., The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), Ge 12:4–9.)

Ge 12:13

Gen 20.2; Gen 26.7

Ge 13:6–12

Gen 36.6-8, not enough land for two

Ge 13:10

Like the three tribes in Nu 32.1, Lot "saw" a better place, and chose it over God's choice

Ge 13:14–15

"Abram was told to lift up (nāśā’) his eyes … and look (rā’âh, v. 14; cf. v. 10), which Lot did on his own. Abram was waiting for God to give him the land; Lot just took it. God restated that He would give the land to Abram as a possession. Better that God give it than that someone take it" (Allen P. Ross, "Genesis", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 52); Nu 32.1-5, the two and a half tribes made the same mistake as Lot (they saw the land...that it was indeed a place suitable for livestock)

Ge 14:22–24

Heb 11.24-26, Moses considered the reproach of Christ greater than the treasures of Egypt; 1Cor 9.12, Paul did not take from others

Ge 14:23

Neh 5.18; 1Cor 9.12

Ge 15:2

Abraham assumed that since he had no children, his chief servant, Eliezer of Damascus, would be his heir. The Nuzi Tablets, which reflect the Mesopotamian customs in the period of ca. 2000-1500 B.C., show that it was not uncommon for a childless couple to adopt a slave. He would care for his foster parents and become their heir. But if the parents later had a son, the real son would be the chief heir (cf. Gen. 15:4). The marital customs in the Nuzi Tablets illuminate Sarah’s decision to give her handmaid Hagar to Abraham as her substitute (Gen. 16:2-3; Rachel and Leah did the same in Gen. 30:3,9). The custom at that time was that a barren wife would provide a slave for her husband to bear children. A son born in this way was not to be expelled, and this clarifies Abraham’s reluctance to comply with Sarah’s demand in Genesis 21:9-11. (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook)

Ge 15:6 Reckon, Consider

-Is 53.4, Surely our griefs He Himself bore, And our sorrows He carried; Yet we ourselves ESTEEMED Him stricken, Smitten of God, and afflicted. (chashav in LHB, logizomai in LXX)

-1 Kings 10:21, All King Solomon’s drinking vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold. None was of silver; it was not CONSIDERED valuable in the days of Solomon. (chashav in LHB, logizomai in LXX)

-Prov 17:28, Even a fool, when he keeps silent, is CONSIDERED wise (chashav in LHB, logizomai in LXX)

-Isa 53:3, He was despised and forsaken of men, A man of sorrows and acquainted with grief; And like one from whom men hide their face He was despised, and we did not ESTEEM Him. (chashav in LHB, logizomai in LXX)

-Ps 32.2, How blessed is the man to whom the LORD does not IMPUTE iniquity, And in whose spirit there is no deceit! (chashav in LHB, logizomai in LXX)

-Psalm 106:30–31, Then Phinehas stood up and interposed, And so the plague was stayed. 31 And it was RECKONED to him for righteousness, To all generations forever (chashav in LHB, logizomai in LXX)

Ge 15:6

Rom 10.10; logizomai in Greek, as in Rom 4.5 ; The basis of salvation is the death of Christ, the means is faith, the object is God, but the contents of that faith changes as time goes by and it becomes more and richer. The more knowledge you have, the more accountable you are. The more you know spiritual truth, the more accountable you will be; 1Pet 1.21, your faith and hope are in God; the righteousness that God requires is that righteousness which His righteousness requires Him to require; Rom 4.23-24, this was written for our sake, also

Ge 15:10

Jer 34.18, cut the animal in two

Ge 15:12

Gen 2.21, a sleep fell upon him

Ge 15:17 Covenant

‎Covenant: a contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word berith is always thus translated. Berith is derived from a root which means “to cut,” and hence a covenant is a “cutting,” with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant. Note here, Abram was not required to pass between the divided animals. It was an unconditional covenant. (See also 3.21 and 12.1).

Ge 15:18–21

see also 1Chr 1.13-16 and Dt 7.1 (Canaan's family prepares the land for the Israelites; Gen 9.25 and Gen 17.8 ); Lev 18.3-20 describes the moral depravity of the Canaanites

Ge 16:4

Getting ahead of God, Ex 2.12 and Gen 3.7; also see Ex 32.1-4 ; Mt 4.9, Jesus refused to get ahead of God

Ge 16:13

Here God sees; in Gen 21.17 God hears

Ge 17:8

Gen 9.25, the curse of Canaan; see also Gen 15.18-21, 1Chr 1.13-16 and Dt 7.1 (Canaan's family prepares the land for the Israelites); Lev 18.3-20 describes the moral depravity of the Canaanites

Ge 17:12

"The study of blood clotting factor levels in newborns has also shown that circumcision on the eighth day is the safest time in a male’s life to have this surgery" (John A. Bloom, “How Can Modern Medicine Relate to the Old Testament?,” ed. Ted Cabal et al., The Apologetics Study Bible: Real Questions, Straight Answers, Stronger Faith (Nashville, TN: Holman Bible Publishers, 2007), 233.)

Ge 17:18

In the Old Testament, the firstborn son was the one who normally received a double inheritance, and was the one who would inherit his father’s role as head of the family. God sometimes reversed this order, as he did with Jacob and Esau (Genesis 25:21-26), and as Jacob later did with Ephraim and Manasseh (Genesis 48:13-22). Reuben was the firstborn of Jacob, but his rights as the firstborn were taken away because of his sin (Genesis 35:22; 49:3-4).

Ge 17:19

We don't approach God on our terms...we approach Him on His terms (Gen 3.21)

Ge 18:7

2Sam 24.24, these men gave where it hurt; Mal 1.8, they didn't give the best

Ge 18:12

Laughter of unbelief here, laughter of joy in Gen 21.6

Ge 18:14

The bigger your God, the smaller your problems; the smaller your God, the bigger your problems; Jer 32.17; Nu 11.23 ; Is 59.1 ; Mt 19.26; Lk 1.37 ; Ex 14.13 ; Jer 32.27; 2K 3.18, this is a slight thing in the sight of the Lord

Ge 18:17–18

All nations would be blessed through Abraham; therefore God told him that one city (Sodom) was to be removed before it had a chance to be blessed through him.

Ge 18:19

Jer 9.24, God delights in Justice and Righteousness

Ge 18:19

Eph 6.4, Fathers, bring up your children in the training and instruction of the Lord

Josh 24.15, As for me and my household, we will serve the Lord

1K 1:6, His father (David) had never interfered with him (Adonijah) by asking, “Why do you behave as you do?”

1S 3.13, His (Eli’s) sons made themselves contemptible, and he failed to restrain them.

Ge 18:23

Mt 5.13, Christians are to confront culture, not adapt to it; Ezek 16.51, Israel ; Ezek 14.14, Jer 15.1, Even if Samuel, Moses, Noah, Daniel, or Job were to stand before God, His heart would not be with Israel;

Ex 33.12-13 ; Ps 106.23 ; Ps 53.3 ; Nu 16.48 ; Nu 25.7-8 ; Neh 2.5, Nehemiah desired to rebuild the wall; "Mind the Gap"; Ps 106.30, Phinehas stood up and interposed; Ezek 22.30

Ge 18:32

Judges 6.39, Gideon made the same plea; Gen 18.23-32, it would take 10 righteous to save Sodom; God couldn't find 10 righteous in Sodom, but He did rescue the three who were there (2Pet 2.7; Gen 19.29)

Ge 18:33

God refused to listen to Moses' plea, Dt 3.26

Ge 19 Gates

Gates of Palestinian cities often had stone benches that would be used by the people as they engaged in business and legal transactions (see Ruth 4:1-2). The city gate was also a place of public proclamation (2 Sam. 18:24,33). (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook)

Ge 19:1

Lot was a righteous man, oppressed (tormented, worn down) by the sensual conduct of unprincipled (lawless) men (2 Peter 2:7)

Ge 19:4–8

Lev 18 and 20; Rom 1 (v. 25, worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator); Parallels with Judges 19.22-24; 2Tim 3.4, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God

-We shall spend the night in the square

-Do not spend the night in the square; let me take care of your needs

-Entered the house of the host; feasted

-Men of City surrounded the House

-Bring out the men/man that we may know them

-Owner went out to them and said, "Please do not so wickedly"

-"Let me bring (two women) out and do what seems good to you"

-"Do nothing to this man/men"

Ge 19:8

"In ancient Israel, hospitality was not merely a question of good manners, but a moral institution which grew out of the harsh desert and nomadic existence led by the people of Israel. The biblical customs of welcoming the weary traveler and of receiving the stranger in one's midst was the matrix out of which hospitality and all its tributary aspects developed into a highly esteemed virtue in Jewish tradition. Biblical law specifically sanctified hospitality toward the ger ("stranger") who was to be made particularly welcome "for you were strangers in a strange land" (Lev. 19:34 and see Ex. 12:49). Foreign travelers, although not protected by law (Deut. 15:3; 23:21), could count on the custom of hospitality" (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0009_0_09260.html)


Judges 21.25, everyone does that which is right in their own eyes

Ge 19:13

If there is any doubt as to why God destroyed Sodom, it is settled in Jude 7 (indulged in gross immorality and went after strange flesh)

Ge 19:14

It was difficult to get Lot out of Sodom, and Sodom out of Lot’s family; 2Chr 30.10, the remnant of the northern kingdom mocked Hezekiah when he invited them to the Passover; see also Mt 27.39-44 (where Jesus was mocked)

Ge 19:26

Luke 17:33 (concerning Lot's wife), Whoever seeks to keep his life will lose it, and whoever loses his life will preserve it.

Ge 20:2

Gen 12.13, Gen 26.7, other lies

Ge 21:3

For the rest of their lives, Sarah and Abraham were reminded of their disbelief in God's power every time they called their son's name, Isaac (laughter)

Ge 21:6

Laughter of joy here, laughter of unbelief in Gen 18.12

Ge 21:17

Here God hears; in Gen 16.13 God sees; “Go on your way, and God bless you, for it is not possible that the son of these tears should be lost” (Augustine, Confessions)

Ge 22:1

God tests (expecting a profitable outcome; Dt 8.2, God tests Israel); Satan tempts (expecting an unprofitable outcome)

Ge 22:2

Where the akedah took place, 2Chr 3.1, and 1Chr 21.15; Abraham was also told to "go" in Gen 12.1 (from and to)

Ge 22:5

"We" will come again to you; all Abraham knew was that (a) God planned the future around Isaac (Heb 11.19) , and (b) God wanted him to sacrifice Isaac. He could not reconcile the two, but he would obey anyway. That is faith (choosing to believe God in spite of feelings and experiences to the contrary)

Ge 22:10 Isaac, a type of Christ

Isaac was a type of Christ in that:

1. His Father was willing to sacrifice him

2. His Mother was past child-bearing age (as Mary was at the other end of the spectrum)

3. He was Abraham's only son (v. 2)

4. He carried the wood to the sacrifice

5. His father received him back from the dead (in type)

6. He was obedient to the point of death

7. Was offered on Mt. Moriah

8. He was the promised son

Ge 22:10

Looking forward to God's deliverance, Jer 32.9 and Heb 11.19 ; Dan 3.18, they were willing to subject their idea of blessing to God's idea of blessing, even to their own hurt (Ps 15.4)

Ge 22:13

Mt 27.15-23, like Barabbas, Isaac represents us; a comedy, where all looks lost, and then at the last moment, a reversal of fortune

Ge 22:14

"A true worshiper of God holds nothing back from God but obediently gives Him what He asks, trusting that He will provide. The key idea of the entire passage is summarized in the name Abraham gave to the place: Yahweh Yir’eh, The LORD will provide (or, 'see'; v. 14). The explanation is, On the mountain of the LORD it will be provided (or, 'seen,' yera’eh, v. 14; cf. v. 8). This is the basis of a truth often repeated in the Old Testament: the Lord was to be worshiped in His holy mountain by the nation. 'Three times a year all the men [of Israel] are to appear [yera’eh, ‘be seen’] before the Sovereign LORD' to worship Him, bringing their offerings and sacrifices (Ex. 23:17; cf. Deut. 16:16). The Lord would see (ra’âh) the needs of those who came before Him, and would meet their needs. Thus in providing for them He would be 'seen.'" (Allen P. Ross, “Genesis,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 65)


Matthew 6:8, for your Father knows what you need before you ask Him.

Ge 22:17

Steven Wright: "I have a hobby. I have the world's largest collection of sea shells. I keep it scattered on beaches all over the world. Maybe you've seen some of it."

Ge 22:18

Rom 11.20, Isaac's blood line will be broken off because of unbelief, and the Gentiles will be grafted in through their belief (Gal 3.7); Rom 9.8, Jn 3.6, Dt 32.21

Ge 23:4

This was the first indication that a transition was underway for Abraham and his descendants...from Mesopotamia to Canaan.

Ge 23:9

In this cave was buried not only Sarah but also Abraham (25:9), Isaac and his wife Rebekah, and Jacob and Leah (49:29-31; 50:13).

Ge 23:20

"Canaan was now Abraham’s new native land. But interestingly the only part of the Promised Land Abraham himself ever received he bought, and that was a burial cave. This first property of the patriarchs—a cave—bound them to the Promised Land. This was a real “occupation” of the land. There would never be a return to Mesopotamia. Later patriarchs would also die and be buried with their ancestors in Canaan. Abraham knew he could not exhaust God’s promise, so he made plans for the future. By buying the land for his dead, he was forced to realize that God’s promises do not end with this life. God will do far more than He has done in this life, which is the hope of all who die in faith" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 66).

Ge 24:3

Be separate, 2 Cor 6.14; Ezek 42.1; Ezek 11.12 ; Gen 28.1, Isaac gave the same instructions to Jacob

Ge 24:11

Gen 29.2, Jacob met Rachel at a well

Ge 24:14

"Girl" is parthenos in LXX

Ge 24:16

"Virgin" is parthenos in LXX, bethulah in MT

Ge 24:43

"Maiden" is parthenos in LXX, almah in MT

Ge 24:55

"Girl" is parthenos in LXX

Ge 24:67

The custom in the East has always been for the parents to select a bride for their son. Because of this, love normally followed marriage (Gen. 24:67), though there were exceptions (Gen. 29:10-18; Judg. 14:2). Once the bride was chosen, a deputy (“the friend of the bridegroom,” John 3:29) would negotiate the dowry to be paid for the woman (Gen. 29:18; 1 Sam. 18:25). The woman’s ten silver coins in the parable of the lost coin (Luke 15:8-9) was probably part of her marriage dowry. (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook)

Ge 25:23

The elder would serve the younger (Ishmael and Isaac, Esau and Jacob, Zerah and Perez, Joseph and his brothers)

Ge 25:26

Hos 12.3 explains the name and name change

Ge 25:31

Jacob was actually the better hunter

Ge 25:32

Wisdom takes the long view (eternal); folly takes the short view (temporal)

Ge 25:33

There is a precedent in the Nuzi Tablets for Esau’s sale of his birthright to Jacob. Tablet N204 records the sale of inheritance rights by a man named Tupktilla to his brother Kurpazah for three sheep. Nuzi tablet P56 illuminates the importance of the oral blessing in the ancient Near East. This tablet shows that in patriarchal times, an oral blessing was legally binding. Once it was bestowed, it could not be revoked. This explains why Isaac could not change his blessing after he discovered he had been deceived (see Gen. 27:33-41). (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook)

Ge 26:4

Land, seed, blessing

Ge 26:7

More lies, Gen 12.13 ; Gen 20.2 and 12

Ge 26:12

Mk 4.8, a hundredfold blessing

Ge 26:22

Keep trying until God gives you peace (Acts 16.6, 1 Sam 17.40)

Ge 26:28

Joseph (Gen 39:3, "his master saw that the Lord was with him"; Gen 41:38, "a man in whom the spirit of God is"); Daniel (Dan 6:3, "an excellent spirit was in him"); Caleb, Nu 14.24; Joshua, Nu 27.18

Ge 26:34–35

Gen 28.8-9, bringing grief to parents by choice of spouse

Ge 27:22–27

‎"Reliance on one’s senses for spiritual discernment not only proves fallible, but often fouls up life unduly" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 73); Ironically, Jacob was deceived by goat's blood in Gen 37.33 (Gal 6.7) ; "Love" in vv. 4 and 9 is phileo in the LXX; Joshua committed the same error in Josh 9.14; Prov 3.5-6

Ge 27:28–29

It's obvious that Jacob was the better hunter; "Rebekah and Jacob won, though they gained nothing that God would not have given them anyway; and they lost. much. Yet God would work through their conniving. Their activities only succeeded in doing what God’s oracle had predicted. God’s program will triumph, often in spite of human activities" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 73)

Ge 27:35

Jacob got the top block

Ge 27:40

Gen 36.6-8, Esau breaks away

Ge 27:41

The grudge lives on, Nu 20.18 ; Obad 10

Ge 28:1

Gen 24.3, Abraham gave the same instructions for Isaac

Ge 28:8–9

Gen 26.34-35 ; "Esau, trying to please his father, married a descendant of Abraham through Ishmael. Mahalath, a daughter of Ishmael, was thus a cousin of Esau. Ironically the unchosen son of Isaac married into the unchosen line of Ishmael! So Esau tried to better his marital reputation by marrying a third wife. Esau had no understanding of the Abrahamic Covenant and its purity. He was still living on the human level" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 74)

Ge 28:12 Jacob's Ladder

Jesus referenced this “ladder” in John 1.51 when speaking of Himself (the Mediator between God and man, 1 Tim 2.5)

Ge 28:13–14

Land, seed, blessing

Ge 29:2

‎The fact that the meeting took place at a well is significant because a well was often associated with God’s blessing (cf. 16:13-14; 21:19; 26:19-25, 33) (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 75); Gen 24.11, Rebekah found at the well

Ge 29:17

‎The wives of each of the first three patriarchs were beautiful: Sarah (12:11), Rebekah (24:15-16), and Rachel (29:17). Furthermore, ‎Rachel, like Sarah and Rebekah before her, was barren (v. 31; cf. 16:1; 25:21) (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 75-76)

Ge 29:18

This bears out in Gen 33.2, where he sends Leah ahead of Rachel when encountering Esau

Ge 29:23

‎Gal 6.7; "Jacob had deceived his own brother and father, and now was deceived by his mother’s brother! Twenty years (31:38) of drudgery, affliction, and deception lay ahead. Through Laban he received his own medicine of duplicity. He had deceptively presented himself to his father under the guise of Esau the firstborn; now Leah the firstborn was deceptively introduced to him under the guise of Rachel the younger" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 75-76)

Ge 29:32

‎Reuben(re’ûḇēn)--the Lord had seen my misery (rā’âh be‘ōnyî)

Ge 29:33

‎"Simeon was so named because the Lord heard (šāma‘) that Leah was not loved. “God heard” was her testimony in faith to His provision (cf. “Ishmael,” which means “God hears,” 16:15)" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 76)

Ge 29:34

‎"Levi was named for her hope that her husband would become attached (yillāweh) to her, but it was not to be" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 76)

Ge 29:35

‎"Judah was her consolation; she would be satisfied to praise (’ôḏeh) the Lord, for Judah means “let Him be praised” (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 76)

Ge 30:2

Joseph asked the same of his brothers in Gen 50.19 (see also 2K 5.7)

Ge 30:32

Gen 31.12 explains why Jacob wanted these particular animals

Ge 30:37–39

‎"Jacob later admitted (31:7-12) that God intervened to fulfill the expectations" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 77)

Ge 31:7

Job 1.12 , God has to give permission to Satan to act

Ge 31:12

So, Jacob asked for these in Gen 30.32

Ge 31:19 Teraphim

"To have the teraphim may have meant the right to inheritance (the 15th century BC Nuzi tablet G51 reveals that the teraphim signified rule over the family and title to the family’s property); it certainly meant Laban was without what he thought was his protection. This is why Laban pursued Jacob. It was one thing for Jacob to take his flocks and family; but his gods too? Perhaps Jacob would try to steal back to Haran someday and claim all of Laban’s estate. Laban was anxious to recover them for his own sons (Gen. 31:1,30). Failing to find the gods, Laban later, vv. 43-53, made a treaty to keep this troublesome man out of his territory" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 78; Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook)

Ge 32:25

2Cor 12.10, Paul realized when he stopped trusting in his physical and mental strength, and began trusting in God, he was strong (Mt 5.3); Acts 5.38-39, you can't win a fight against God; "When God touched the strongest sinew of the wrestler, it shriveled, and with it Jacob’s persistent self-confidence also shriveled. His carnal weapons were lame and useless; they failed him in his contest with God. What he had surmised for the past 20 years now dawned on him: he was in the hands of the One against whom it is useless to struggle. After this crippling touch, Jacob’s struggle took a new direction. Now crippled in his natural strength he became bold in faith" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 81);

Ge 32:32

Orthodox Jews still refuse to eat the tendon of the hindquarter of animals.

Ge 33:2

Gen 29.18, Jacob loved Rachel, so he placed her last

Ge 34:1

Lev 10.19—Aaron’s sons die, Nu 12:14—Miriam, Jonah 4:11—Nineveh; "Jacob had made a commercial connection with Shechem (33:19), but Dinah’s step toward social interaction had serious complications. Avoidance of the Canaanites would have been much safer" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 83)

Ge 34:3

Here in the LXX, "loved" is agapay and "young woman" is parthenos (ἠγάπησεν τὴν παρθένον)

Ge 34:5

"While the sons were filled with grief and fury, Jacob was passive and could not pull things together. Perhaps if Dinah were his daughter by Rachel rather than by Leah, he would have acted differently" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 83.)

Ge 34:10

Jacob knew that God was going to give him the land anyway.

Ge 34:25

"In this story the instinct of Simeon and Levi was correct, but because of their unbridled passion they were later passed over in Jacob’s blessing (Gen. 49:5-7)" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 83-84)

Ge 34:31

Rhetoric: Lev 10.19—Aaron’s sons die, Nu 12:14—Miriam, Jonah 4:11—Nineveh

Ge 35:18

Benjamin was the only son of Jacob born in Canaan--the others were born outside the land in Paddan Aram; Esau's sons were born in Canaan and moved out (Gen 36.6-8)

Ge 36:6–8

Gen 27.40 ; Gen 13.6-12 ; Esau's sons were born in Canaan and moved out, while Benjamin was the only son of Jacob born in Canaan--the others were born outside the land in Paddan Aram (Gen 35.18)

Ge 36:9–43

"Unlike Esau, Jacob had no “chiefs” or kings (35:11) yet, no lands to govern, and no full tribes. He was a sojourner. Delitzsch pertinently remarked that secular, worldly greatness comes swifter than spiritual greatness (A New Commentary on Genesis, 2:238). A promised spiritual blessing demands patience and faith. Waiting while others prosper is a test of one’s faithfulness and perseverance" (Allen P. Ross, “Genesis,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 86.); Secular, worldly greatness comes swifter than spiritual greatness (Gen 10.8, Nimrod)

Ge 37:2

Abel, Abraham, Isaac, Rachel, Jacob, Jacob’s sons, Zipporah, Moses, and David were all shepherds


The shepherd’s work was a livelihood that called for diligence and endurance; dealt with inclement weather, substandard lodging, and the threat of dangerous animals intent on preying on the flock. A staff was used to control the movement of the flock, and a rod was used to ward off enemies (Ps. 23:4)

Ge 37:4

Joseph: most perfect type of Christ in the Old Testament

1. Hated and ridiculed without a cause, Gen. 37:4, 8, 19; John 15:25; John 15:18-19, they will hate you, also Mt. 5:11-12

2. Plotted against, Gen. 37:20, John 11:53

3. Stripped of his robe, Gen. 37:23; John 19:23–24

4. Sold for silver, Gen. 37:28 ; Matt. 26:14–16

5. Lied about, Gen. 39: 14; Matt. 26:61

6. Placed in captivity with two guilty men, Gen. 40:1–3; Luke 23:32–33

7. Unrecognized by his own, Gen. 42:8; John 1:11

8. Like Moses and Christ, not accepted until his second appearance (Gen 45.15; Zech 12.10; Acts 7.35-37)

9. Neither did the brothers have power over Joseph (God sent him to Egypt), nor did Pilate have power over Christ (God sent him there), Gen 45.8 and Jn 19.11,

10. Joseph saved his people physically, like Jesus did spiritually, Gen 47.25 and Lk 19.10

11. “Do what he tells you”, Gen 41.55 and Jn 2.5

12. All bow before him, Gen 42.6, Phil 2.10

Ge 37:9

Rev 12.1, sun, moon, 12 stars

Ge 37:25–28

Ishmaelites were descendants of Abraham by Hagar (16:15). Midianites (37:28) descended from Abraham by his concubine Keturah (25:2)

Ge 37:28

Seed of Israel planted in Egypt and would later be born out of the womb of Egypt

Ge 37:31–33

Their use of goat’s blood is ironic, for the skins of a goat were used by Jacob to deceive his father (27:16). Jacob’s sin of years before had come back to haunt him (Gal 6.7)

Ge 37:33

Jacob and Joseph stories:

Both begin with the Father being deceived and the brothers being treacherous (chaps. 27; 37)

Both include a 20-year period of separation, with the younger brother in a foreign land.

Both conclude with a reunion and reconciliation of the brothers (33:1–15; 45:1–15)

Ge 37:35

2Sam 12.23, David will go to his son

Ge 38:1

Gen 38 is top aorist by words, Rahlfs LXX

Ge 38:8 Mosaic Law on Levirate Marriage

Judah told his son Onan to marry Tamar, his brother’s widow. The Mosaic Law provided for Levirate marriage (Deut. 25:5-10; cf. Matt. 22:23-33), and this has a precedent in the Nuzi Tablets which record a father’s will that if his son dies, the widow should marry another of his sons. (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook)

Ge 38:14

"Tamar felt she would have to take matters into her own hands if she were to be granted the rights of the Levirate custom. This system was later codified by Moses for the sake of preserving the name of the deceased (Deut. 25:5-10)" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 88)

Ge 38:27–30

"It is as if the oracle concerning Jacob’s ruling over his older brother (27:29) was being relived in the line of Judah. What was so significant was the connection with Judah’s dealing with Joseph (37:26-28). He and his brothers sold their younger brother into Egypt, thinking they could thwart God’s design that the elder brothers would serve the younger Joseph. Yet in Judah’s own family, despite his attempts to hinder Tamar’s marriage, God’s will worked out in a poignant confirmation of the principle that the elder would serve the younger" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 89)

Ge 39:2

Col 3.23, work as though for the Lord and not man

Ge 39:3 God's Servant in Worldly Authority

God put his servant in a position of worldly authority:

Moses/Joseph (Gen 39:3, "his master saw that the Lord was with him"; Gen 41:38, "a man in whom the spirit of God is")--Egypt

Nehemiah/Daniel (Dan 6:3, "an excellent spirit was in him")--Babylon

Esther/Mordecai (Esther 10.3, “seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed”)--Persia

(also see Gen 21.22 and Gen 26.28, where the Philistines saw "the LORD has been with" Abraham and Isaac)

Ge 39:4 Stewardship/Overseer

1Cor 4.2 ; as Joseph was steward to Potiphar's possessions, so we are to God's. God will use our abilities later as Pharaoh did with Joseph in Gen 41.40; "No man appears in safety before the public eye unless he first relishes obscurity. No man is safe in speaking unless he loves to be silent. No man rules safely unless he is willing to be ruled. No man commands safely unless he has learned well how to obey" (Thomas a` Kempis, The Imitation of Christ (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996), 36-37); Archaeological finds provide a background for the story of Joseph in Potiphar’s house. Egyptian papyrus documents show that the Canaanites were highly desirable as slaves in Egypt. Egyptian monuments refer to the overseer (merper) of large houses, a position which Joseph held. In addition, excavations at Tell el Amarna in central Egypt explain why Potiphar’s wife would speak to Joseph each day. In the floor plans of large houses, the storerooms in the back could only be reached by going through the inner chambers of the house. (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook)

Ge 39:7

"after these events" could mean immediately, in 11 years, or anywhere in between

Ge 39:12

1Cor 6.18; Joseph remained loyal to God rather than yield to temptation at the first glimpse of his rise to power (unlike David, 2Sam 11.4); Prov 27.12 ; 2Tim 3.4, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God; 1Pet 4.2, we should not live for the lusts of men, but for the will of God; Prov 7.22, Joseph knew where this would lead

Ge 39:12

Other things to flee

-2 Tim. 2:22, youthful lusts; Prov. 5:3-21, 6:20-35, 7:6-23, and 9:13-18

-1 Tim. 6:8-11, riches

-1 Cor. 10:14, idolatry

-1 Cor 6:18, immorality

Ge 41:15–16

Dan 2.27-28, it's not me, it's God; Pharaoh took note of Joseph, not because of Joseph qua Joseph, but because of God qua Joseph. What set Joseph apart from others is that Joseph himself recognized this (contra Nebuchadnezzar-Dan 4.31, Herod-Acts 12.22-23, and the king of Assyria-Is 10.12-19).

Ge 41:38

Nu 14:24, Caleb/Nu 27.18 , Joshua; Dan 6:3, Daniel; Nu 25.11, Phinehas; Acts 11:24, Barnabas; also see Gen 21.22 and Gen 26.28, where the Philistines saw "the LORD has been with" Abraham and Isaac

Ge 41:40

Ps 105.16-22 ; Mt 24.45, faithful and sensible slave

Ge 41:43

Esther 6.11, Mordecai; Dan 2.48, Daniel

Ge 41:46 Ambassadorship

2 Cor 5.20 ; we are ambassadors of Christ, as Joseph was Pharaoh's ambassador; According to Gen 37.2, Joseph was at least 17 when he was sold to the Ishmaelites. Gen 41.1 states two years passed between the time of Joseph interpreting his cellmates' dreams and his release from prison. He was 30 when he entered the service of Pharaoh. Therefore, Joseph went to prison and interpreted his cellmates' dreams between age 17 and 28, released two years later, and entered Pharaoh's service at 30 (2-13 years in prison).

Ge 41:49

God both saved and destroyed Egypt with a Hebrew, here and Ex 14.30 ; Alexander the Great "accorded to the Jews in Alexandria the same rights as its Greek inhabitants enjoyed, and so raised them to the rank of the privileged classes. Henceforth their numbers and their influence grew under successive rulers. We find them commanding Egyptian armies, largely influencing Egyptian thought and inquiry, and partially leavening it by the translation of the Holy Scriptures into Greek...There can be no doubt that, in the Providence of God, the location of so many Jews in Alexandria, and the mental influence which they acquired, were designed to have an important bearing on the later spread of the Gospel of Christ among the Greek-speaking and Grecian-thinking educated world. In this, the Greek translation of the Old Testament was also largely helpful. Indeed, humanly speaking, it would have scarcely been possible without it. At the time of Philo the number of Jews in Egypt amounted to no less than one million...The supervision of navigation, both by sea and river, was wholly entrusted to them. In fact, the large export trade, especially in grain—and Egypt was the granary of the world—was entirely in their hands. The provisioning of Italy and of the world was the business of the Jews." (Alfred Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2003), 208)

Ge 41:51–52

Job was blessed in the latter days more than his beginning, Job 42.12

Ge 41:55

Jn 2.5, do what He tells you to do

Ge 42:2

God grew Israel in Egypt because they would have mingled with the Canaanites and died out in Canaan (Gen 43.32); Here they would go into isolation and multiply without losing their identity.

Ge 42:6

Gen 37.7-10; Phil 2.10, Joseph was a type of Christ

Ge 42:21–22

Zech 12.10-11, They will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn. In that day there will be great mourning in Jerusalem; Rev 1.7, Behold, He is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see Him, even those who pierced Him; and all the tribes of the earth will mourn over Him

Ge 42:25

Ruth 2.16, Boaz did the same for Ruth

Ge 43:8–10

"Interestingly Judah was the one who had come up with the plan to sell Joseph to Egypt (37:26-27). Now he had to negotiate with his father in order to get Benjamin to see Joseph" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 93)

Ge 43:30

Benjamin was his full brother, not like the rest of them (half brothers)

Ge 43:33

There are “no less than 39,917,000 different orders (permutations) in which eleven individuals could have been seated.” (Henry M. Morris. The Genesis Record. (Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1962) p. 93).

Ge 44:2

Joseph wanted to see if they had repented or would they throw Benjamin under the bus like they did Joseph.

Ge 45:8

Jn 19.11, the brothers had no power of Joseph, only God did; Esther 4.14, who knows whether you have not attained royalty for such a time as this?; There are no accidents in the plan of Almighty God

Ge 45:15

Joseph, like Moses and Christ, were not accepted until their second appearance (Acts 7.35-37; Zech 12.10)

Ge 45:26

Others that did not believe, Acts 12.15; Lk 24.11

Ge 46:27

The Dead Sea Scrolls make the number of the people of Jacob 75, not 70, in Genesis 46:27, thus correcting a scribal error and showing that Stephen’s figure was right (Acts 7:14). However, this may not be correcting a scribal error since the 70 figure is referring to the number of Jacob’s descendants previously listed in the Genesis 46. Thus, it could be excluding Jacob and his two wives and two concubines, which give the number 75 of which Stephen spoke.

Ge 47:7

Pharaoh blessed Jacob with physical blessing, but Jacob blessed Pharaoh spiritually

Ge 47:25

Joseph, a type of Christ, saved his people

Ge 48:5–6

"Jacob gave the birthright to Joseph by elevating Ephraim and Manasseh, Joseph’s sons (41:51-52), to the rank of firstborn sons, thus giving a double portion to Joseph. They thus replaced Reuben and Simeon, Jacob’s first two sons, born to Leah" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 97)

Ge 48:14

"For four consecutive generations this re-versed pattern was followed: Isaac over Ishmael, Jacob over Esau, Joseph over Reuben, and Ephraim over Manasseh" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 97)

Ge 49:1

"These oracles serve a purpose in the book similar to that of Noah’s oracles about his sons (Gen. 9:24-27). Both look ahead prophetically to the destinies of the sons at the end of their respective ages—Noah in the primeval days and Jacob in the patriarchal" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 99)

Ge 49:4

A reference to Reuben’s adultery with Jacob’s concubine Bilhah (35:22).

Ge 49:5–7

"Here was God’s moral judgment on their slaughter of the Shechemites (34:25-29). God distinguishes holy war from vengeance" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 98)

Ge 49:10

Is 42.1, He shall bring forth justice to the nations

Ge 49:18

There is deliverance...sometimes, it's just not instantaneous (Rom 8.25) ; “Though the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding small; Though with patience He stands waiting, with exactness grinds He all." (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow)

Ge 50:2 Mummification

Mummification was practiced in Egypt by 2500 B.C. and was generally reserved for royalty, high officials, and the wealthy. First the organs were removed (except for the heart and kidneys) and placed in stone canopic jars. Then the body was dehydrated from 40 to 70 days with natron, a form of sodium carbonate. Next, the chest and abdominal cavities were stuffed with resin-soaked linen, and the body was treated with ointments, wrapped in linen, and placed in a painted wooden coffin. (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook); "The embalming period was seldom less than a month and normally took 40 days. The Egyptians mourned for Jacob 70 days—two and one-half months—just two days short of the normal time of mourning for a Pharaoh. This showed the great respect the Egyptians had for Joseph" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 99–100)

Ge 50:19

Rom 12.19, vengeance is Mine; 1Sam 25.33 (David and Nabal), 2Sam 1.14 (death of Saul), 2Sam 3.39 (death of Abner), 2Sam 4.11 (death of Ish-bosheth); “Though the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding small; Though with patience He stands waiting, with exactness grinds He all." (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow); Jacob asked the same of Rachel in Gen 30.2 ; Mt 7.1, Judge not

Ge 50:20

God sets in Motion (Gal 6.9, for in due season we shall reap if we faint not)

-Joseph, Gen 50.20

-The servant of Naaman's wife, 2K 5.2 (which led to Naaman's faith in v. 15)

-The crucifixion was meant for evil by the Jews and Gentiles, but God meant it for good, Acts 2.23

-Job, Job 1.12 (viewed in the light of Job 42.12)

-Esther, Esther 4.14

Ge 50:20 Suffering

Heb 12.11; only in Christianity does suffering have a redemptive value; 1Pet 4.14; He who is spiritual can perceive the hand of God in every event, and therefore is able to forgive those who wrong him; Acts 2.23, the crucifixion was meant for evil by the Jews and Gentiles, but God meant it for good; Job 1.12 viewed in the light of Job 42.12


"What would have happened in the history of the world if Jacob had not given Joseph a colorful coat? No coat, no jealousy. No jealousy, no treacherous sale of Joseph to Midianite traders. No sale of Joseph to Midianite traders, no descent into Egypt. No descent into Egypt, no meeting with Potiphar. No meeting with Potiphar, no trouble with his wife. No trouble with his wife, no imprisonment. No imprisonment, no interpretation of the dreams of Pharaoh. No interpretation of the dreams of Pharaoh, no elevation to the role of prime minister. No elevation to the role of prime minister, no reconciliation with his brothers. No reconciliation with his brothers, no migration of the Jewish people into Egypt. No migration into Egypt, no exodus out of Egypt. No exodus out of Egypt, no Moses, no law, no prophets—and no Christ! Do you think it was an accident in the plan of God that that coat happened? God meant it all for good" (R. C. Sproul, Does God Control Everything?, vol. 14, First edition., The Crucial Questions Series (Orlando, FL: Reformation Trust, 2012), 62–63)

Ge 50:24

Heb 11.22 ; Heb 11.13 ; Ex 13.19

Ge 50:26

‎"Abraham lived to be 175 [25:7]; Isaac, 180 [35:28]; and Jacob, 147 [47:28]" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 100); "A‎t the end of Genesis the family is not in the land of blessing but in Egypt. Man had traveled far from Eden to a coffin, and the chosen family far from Canaan to Egypt" (Allen P. Ross, "Genesis", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 24)

Ex 1:1 Exodus

Esau is not mentioned in Exodus MT; Narration 1-18, Legislation 19-40 ; It took one night to get Israel out of Egypt, forty years to get Egypt out of Israel; The first major world power was Egypt. In order to understand much of what was written at that time, we had to decipher hieroglyphics. This was impossible, until soldiers in Napoleon's army (while in Egypt) discovered a stone in 1799 (produced during the reign of Ptolemy V, c. 200 BCE). On this stone is an inscription written in three languages: Hieroglyphic, Demotic, and Greek. The information written on the Rosetta Stone eventually unlocked the mysterious Egyptian language, thanks to the efforts of French scholar Jean-Francois Champollion; Exodus stresses redemption and consecration. Its events took place during the 18th Egyptian Dynasty.

Ex 1:1

Ancient Rameses is located at Tell el-Dab‘a in the eastern Delta, approximately 100 km northeast of Cairo. In antiquity, the Pelusiac branch of the Nile flowed past the site, giving access to the Mediterranean. The reason why it took so long to find the city? It is hard work looking for mud bricks in mud. Rameses II (19th dynasty, 1304-1235 BCE) ruled for 65 years, and was one of the greatest of the pharaohs. He was a great builder, but somewhat of a plagiarist also. He occasionally claimed credit for the accomplishments of his predecessors. His mummy is in Cairo. His son Merneptah (1235-1220 BCE, mummy also in Cairo) is thought by some to be the pharaoh during the exodus (which would mean Rameses II was the great oppressor of Israel). In 1906, Sir Flinders Petrie found a slab of black syenite containing a record of Merneptah's victories, made in the 5th year of his reign. The word "Israel" occurs in the middle of the second line from the bottom. It says: "Plundered is Canaan. Israel is desolated; his seed is not. Palestine is become a widow for Egypt." Scholars who hold to the earlier exodus date consider this a reference to a raid of Merneptah's into Palestine some 200 years after Israel had settled in the land. The decline of Egypt began shortly after the 19th Dynasty, perhaps as a result of the plagues. Rameses III began the 20th dynasty.


"The date 1446 for the Exodus is based on 1 Kings 6:1 which says that Solomon commenced the construction of the temple in his fourth year, 966 b.c., which was 480 years after the Exodus" (Eugene H. Merrill, "Numbers", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 215)

Ex 1:10

"Moses discussed two forms of oppression in the reign of a Pharaoh in Egypt’s 18th dynasty: slave labor (vv. 8-14) and child extermination (vv. 15-22). God used these practices of the Pharaoh to stir up the people of God to desire deliverance from Egypt" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 108). It is possible God did the same with the holocaust.

Ex 1:12 Persecution

Acts 4.4; Persecution brings growth; Acts 8.4 ; In a recent article from The Economist (“Religion in China: Cracks in the Atheist Edifice,” 1 Nov 2014, http://www.economist.com/node/21629218/print), with reference to the erosion of Christian faith in western Europe, a Beijing house-church elder was quoted as saying "If we get full religious freedom, then the church is finished."

Ex 1:16

"The delivery stool (lit., “two stools”) refers to the custom of mothers delivering their babies while sitting on two stones" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 109)

Ex 1:17

Acts 5.29, we must obey God rather than man; Dan 3.28

Ex 2:1

Marrying an aunt would later be unlawful (Lev 18.12-14); Ex 2 is top Wayyiqtol by words, LHB (as well as #2 in ratio of Wayyiqtol to Perfect/Waw Perfect/Imperfect, LHB)

Ex 2:4

Later, in Nu 12.1-15, Miriam would murmur against Moses' leadership

Ex 2:5

If the monarch at this time was Thutmose I, the daughter may have been Hatshepsut

Ex 2:10

"Several women were involved in the events surrounding Moses’ birth: the midwives’ fear of God and their disobeying Pharaoh’s orders; the defiance of Moses’ mother; the compassion of the Egyptian princess, Pharaoh’s own daughter; and the availability of Moses’ own sister. Moses would later repudiate his Egyptian heritage, refusing “to be known as the son of Pharaoh’s daughter”" (Heb. 11:24–25) (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 110); 2Sam 22.17 (God drew David out of many waters), moshah, to draw out

Ex 2:12

Moses getting ahead of God, when he should have waited for God to prepare him (Acts 7.25; later, Ex 14.13, Moses had learned to wait); Gen 16.4 and Gen 3.7 ; Ex 11.8 and Ex 32.1-4 ; Nu 20.11 ; Mt 4.9, Jesus refused to get ahead of God

Ex 2:15

‎"The founder of these people was Midian, a son of Keturah, wife of Abraham, who sent them “to the land of the east” (Gen. 25:1–6)" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 110)

Ex 3:5

God did the same to Joshua, Joshua 5.15

Ex 3:6

God knew He would be using this scripture as the Son (Mt 22.32)

Ex 3:8

"The phrase a land flowing with milk means that Canaan was ideal for raising goats and cows. Feeding on good pastureland the goats, sheep, and cows were full of milk. Flowing with honey means that the bees were busy making honey. Milk and honey suggested agricultural prosperity" (John D. Hannah, “Exodus,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 112); John 14.2, "I go to prepare a place for you"

Ex 3:10

Note, God said nothing to Moses about bringing the people into the land.

Ex 3:11 Excuses, excuses

Ex 3.11, Who am I?

Ex 3.13, What shall I say?

Ex 4.1, What if they will not believe?

Ex 4.10, I have never been eloquent

Ex 4.13, Send the message by whomever You will

(Ex 4.14, the anger of the LORD burned against Moses)

Ex 4.24, the LORD sought to put Moses to death (circumcision)

Ex 5.22, Why did You ever send me?

Ex 6.12, I am unskilled in speech

Ex 6.30, I am unskilled in speech

(and then, in v. 14, God says "I AM WHO I AM")

Ex 3:14

I AM: Mt 14.27 ; Mt 24.5; Mk 6.50; Mk 13.6 ; Mk 14.62; Lk 22.70 ; Lk 24.39 ; Jn 4.26; Jn 6.20; Jn 8.24; Jn 8.28; Jn 8.58; Jn 13.13; Jn 13.19; Jn 18.5-8;

Ex 3:18

Mt 12.43-45 ; Dt 6.23 ; God called Israel from service to Pharaoh to service to Him (because left to their own devices, they would return to Egypt, like we return to the world); Lk 1.74, rescued to serve God


Bob Dylan, Gotta Serve Somebody

You're gonna have to serve somebody, yes indeed

You're gonna have to serve somebody,

It may be the devil or it may be the Lord

But you're gonna have to serve somebody.

Ex 3:22

Ex 11.2; back wages, and items to be used for the tabernacle

Ex 4:1 Believe

This chapter is over-represented with aman (heb-believe).

Ex 4:10

Jer 1.6, Jeremiah gave God the same excuse

Ex 4:12

Jn 16.13, God will disclose to His prophet what is to come; Go, as in Jonah 3.2 (Rom 10.15)

Ex 4:17

In the first three plagues Aaron used his staff (7:19–20; 8:5–6, 16–17), and in plagues seven and eight Moses used his own staff (9:23; 10:13)

Ex 4:21

Metonymy of the subject (see also 2Sam 12.9, David stuck down Uriah with the sword): "God provided the circumstances and the occasion for Pharaoh to be forced to make a decision. God sent Moses to place His demands before Pharaoh. Moses merely announced God’s instructions. God even accompanied His Word with miracles—to confirm the divine origin of the message (cf. Mark 16:20). Pharaoh made up his own mind to resist God’s demands. Of his own accord, he stubbornly refused to comply. Of course, God provided the occasion for Pharaoh to demonstrate his unyielding attitude. If God had not sent Moses, Pharaoh would not have been faced with the dilemma of whether to release the Israelites. So God was certainly the instigator and initiator. But He was not the author of Pharaoh’s defiance" (http://www.apologeticspress.org/apcontent.aspx?category=11&article=1205); God hardened Pharaoh’s heart (7:3; 9:12; 10:1,20,27; 11:10; 14:4,8), and the hearts of the Egyptians (14:17). Pharaoh hardened his own heart (8:15,32; 9:34), he refused to humble himself (10:3), and he was stubborn (13:15). The text uses the passive form to indicate that Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, without giving any indication as to the source (7:13,14,22; 8:19; 9:7,35). (1) God hardened Pharaoh’s heart; (2) Moses hardened Pharaoh’s heart; (3) the words that Moses spoke hardened Pharaoh’s heart; (4) Pharaoh hardened his own heart. All four of these observations are accurate, depicting the same truth from different perspectives; ‎"The first two references to God’s hardening Pharaoh’s heart (4:21; 7:3) were actually predictions that He would do it in the future. Then in the next seven references Pharaoh is said to have hardened his own heart (7:13–14, 22; 8:15, 19, 32; 9:7) before God is said to have hardened it (9:12; 10:1, 20, 27; 11:10; 14:4, 8). God’s first hardening came after the sixth plague. Pharaoh hardened his own heart six times by his refusals. Then later he hardened it again in response to the seventh plague, and God hardened his heart after each of plagues 8–10. God confirmed Pharaoh’s defiant willful obstinance by then judicially hardening his heart (cf. Deut. 2:30; Josh. 11:20)" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 114)

Ex 5:2

God will show Pharaoh Who He is with a series of object lessons (the ten plagues); it is the disposition of humans to be autonomous, independent, and arrogant

Ex 6:3

Gen 13.4; "He mainly appeared to them as God Almighty (’ēl šadday), the One who provides or sustains (cf. comments on Gen. 17:1). He had not displayed Himself to the patriarchs primarily by the name Yahweh...Seven times in these three verses (6-8) God said I will, thus emphasizing that He is the promise-keeping God." (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 116)

Ex 6:12

Jer 1.6 and 2Cor 11.6, unskilled in speech; Moses was not responsible for the outcome, just the process (trust and obey)

Ex 7:3

‎"Each of the judgments to follow smashed some aspect of Egypt’s religious life (i.e., Satan’s domain), culminating in the death of their heir-god, Amenhotep II’s firstborn son" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 118); Ex 12.12


"The plague of blood (No. 1) was directed against the god Khnum, creator of water and life; or against Hapi, the Nile god; or against Osiris, whose bloodstream was the Nile. Frogs (No.2) was directed against Heket, a goddess of childbirth who was represented as a frog. The pestilence against cattle (No. 5) might have been directed against Hathor, the mother and sky goddess, represented in the form of a cow; or against Apis, symbol of fertility represented as a bull. Hail (No. 7) and locusts (No. 8 ) were, according to this explanation, directed against Seth, who manifests himself in wind and storms; and/or against Isis, goddess of life, who grinds, spins flax and weaves cloth; or against Min, who was worshiped as a god of fertility and vegetation and as a protector of crops. Min is an especially likely candidate for these two plagues because the notations in Exodus 9:31 indicate that the first plague came as the flax and barley were about to be harvested, but before the wheat and spelt had matured. A widely celebrated “Coming out of Min” was celebrated in Egypt at the beginning of the harvest.10 These plagues, in effect, devastated Min’s coming-out party. Darkness (No. 9), pursuing this line of interpretation, could have been directed against various deities associated with the sun—Amon-Re, Aten, Atum or Horus. Finally, the death of the firstborn (No. 10) was directed against the patron deity of Pharaoh, and the judge of the dead, Osiris. The number of plagues in Exodus was meant to correspond to the ten divine utterances by which the world was created and ordered (Genesis 1:3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 20, 24, 26, 28, 29).14 The destruction of Egypt was part of the redemption of Israel, so the Exodus narrator tied his story of redemption to the story of creation through subtle echoes and word plays." (Exodus in the Bible and the Egyptian Plagues, Biblical Archeology Society, 1 March 2015)

Ex 7:9

"In plagues 1-3 Aaron used his staff (7:19; 8:5-6, 16-17) and in plagues 7-9 Moses used his staff (9:22-23; 10:12-13, 21-22; though 10:21-22 mentions only Moses’ hand, the staff may have been included). No staff was used by either man in plagues 4-6" (John F. Walvoord et al., vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 119)

Ex 7:11

2Tim 3.8

Ex 7:17

"Osiris, a god of the earth and vegetation, symbolized the flooding of the Nile. The Egyptians believed the Nile was Osiris’ bloodstream" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 121"

Ex 7:20

"These judgments, commonly called plagues, may be grouped in three units of three plagues each, with a 10th culminating in judgment. The 1st, 4th, and 7th judgments, at the beginning of each cycle of three, are introduced by the words, “in the morning” (7:15; 8:20; 9:13). The 1st three (blood, frogs, and gnats) were loathsome; the 2nd three were bothersome (flies) or painful (death of livestock and boils on people and animals); and the 3rd three were “natural” plagues (hail, locusts, darkness). The 3rd plague ends with the defeat of the magicians (8:19), the 6th with their inability to stand before Moses (9:11), and the 9th with the separation of Moses and Pharaoh (10:28)...Pharaoh’s response to each of the plagues is interesting. After the 1st one he would not even listen to the request for the Israelites’ release (7:22–23). In the 2nd plague he agreed to let the people go if the frogs were taken away (8:8). In the 3rd plague he refused to listen to his magicians’ suggestion (8:19). In response to the 4th plague he first suggested that the Israelites sacrifice in the land (8:25). Later he agreed to let them go but not far (8:28) and then backed down on his promise (8:32). Again after the 5th and 6th plagues he refused the request (9:7, 12), but after the 7th he promised to let them go (9:28) if the rain and hail would be stopped, but again he backed down (9:35). In the 8th plague he offered to let only the men go (10:11) and even admitted his sin (10:16), and in the 9th he said the men, women, and children could go but not their animals (10:24). After the 10th plague he actually urged them to go! (12:31–32) " (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 118-19.)

Ex 7:22

"Moses and Aaron, emissaries of God, confronted the emissaries of Satan, the gods of Egypt, and their magicians...God demonstrates His absolute sovereignty over mankind by using them as He pleases; some, like Moses, to honor Him and others, like Amenhotep II, to dishonor Him. Both kinds of people bring glory to God though it is beyond man’s finite ability to understand how this can be." (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 118)

Ex 8:10

1K 18.37, so that You may be known; Why not ask to remove them immediately? “It would seem that Our Lord finds our desires not too strong, but too weak. We are half-hearted creatures, fooling about with drink and sex and ambition when infinite joy is offered us, like an ignorant child who wants to go on making mud pies in a slum because he cannot imagine what is meant by the offer of a holiday at the sea. We are far too easily pleased.” (C.S. Lewis, Weight of Glory)

Ex 8:23

2Cor 6.14, separation; God made a distinction between the Israelites and the Egyptians (cf. 9:4; 11:7), marking His people for deliverance and the others for judgment

Ex 9:6

"If all the cattle died in this plague, how can one explain the presence of animals later in verse 10 and of livestock in verses 20–21? Two explanations are possible: (1) The word “all” (v. 6) may be employed hyperbolically, as a figure of speech for a large quantity without meaning the totality of the livestock. (2) Perhaps a better explanation is that the plague killed all the animals in the field (v. 3) but not those in shelters" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 123)

Ex 9:16

Rom 9.17

Ex 9:17

Is 14.13-14, the great "I Will"

Ex 9:22

"The phrase 'everything growing in the fields' (vv. 22, 25) is qualified by the statements in verses 31–32. 'Everything' refers to those crops about to be harvested, namely, flax (used in making linen cloth), and barley. Wheat and spelt (an inferior type of wheat) were unaffected. Flax and barley blossomed in January and were harvested in March–April. Wheat and spelt ripened about a month later (in April) and were harvested in June–July" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 124); "Because of Pharaoh’s raging, Moses would not go to him in mercy with a word from God. In other words, if Moses saw Pharaoh again, it would be to announce unavoidable judgment or it would be at Pharaoh’s request to grant Moses and the Israelites permission to leave the land" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 125)

Ex 9:32

Left for the upcoming locusts

Ex 11:2

Ex 3.22 ; Ex 35.22-29 ; Ex 25.2

Ex 11:3

By Ex 14.11, they were grumbling again

Ex 11:7

2Cor 6.14, a distinction

Ex 11:8

Moses' fundamental flaw? Ex 2.12 ; Nu 20.11

Ex 12:5 The Innocence of Christ

The innocence of Christ was declared by:

-Pilate's wife - Matthew 27:19

-Judas Iscariot - Matthew 27:4

-Pilate - Matthew 27:24; Luke 23:22; John 19:6

-Thief on the cross - Luke 23:41

-Roman soldiers - Mark 15:39

Ex 12:7

Ezek 9.4, distinguish the righteous

Ex 12:8

The use of qualifying words/means such as "fire” and "water" suggests that bshl could be used to speak of boiling or roasting (and probably "baking" also, per 2Sam 13.8).

Ex 12:11

Eph 6.14-16, be prepared for action

Ex 12:12

Jn 19.33 ; Ex 7.5, the Egyptians will know Yahweh is greater than all their gods

Ex 12:26

Josh 4.6, crossing of the Jordan

Ex 12:33

Ps 105.38, Egypt was glad when they departed

Ex 12:40

Many scholars believe the exodus occurred during the reign of his grandfather, Amenhotep II (1450-1420 BCE), which would make Tuthmose III the great oppressor of Israel. However, (reference Ex 12:40) if the 430 years covers the total time of the Egyptian sojourn, then the descent into Egypt would have coincided with the Hyksos invasion and the Exodus occurred during the reign of Rameses II, about 1290 BCE. Joseph probably entered Egypt during the 12th dynasty, just before the foreign rule of the Asiatic Hyksos (1785-1560 BCE, 13th-17th dynasties). Hatshepsut (1503-1482 BCE) the most famous of the women Pharaohs, preceded Tuthmose III (actually, made him wait to rule) and was probably the one who found Moses in the Nile and brought him up (assuming an early date for the exodus). The Great Pyramids were constructed during the 4th dynasty, 2500 BCE. They were there 1,000 years before Moses was born in Egypt.


The Bible refers to the Exodus from Egypt more often than it does to any other event in Israel’s past—in the historical narratives, in the prophets and even in the psalms. What evidence, short of an inscription in a Proto-Canaanite script stating “bricks made by Hebrew slaves” would be considered proof that the Israelites were in Egypt? And how are Israelite houses, pottery, and buriel traditions different from those of Canaanites or other Semitic-speaking peoples in Egypt at this time? The Nile Delta where the Bible says the ancient Israelites lived has produced no historical or administrative documents that might shed light on any period.

Ex 13:16

Mt 23.5, this practice was over-emphasized by the Rabbis in the NT; Dt 6.8

Ex 13:19

Gen 50.24

Ex 14:12

Jer 44.17, the allure of the physical world; Ex 11.3, Moses was greatly esteemed

Ex 14:13

Ps 46.10, be still and know that I am God; Moses tried to get ahead of God in Ex 2.12 (Acts 7.25) ; Same as Dt 20.3-4, fear not, God will save you; 2Chr 20.17

Ex 14:15

Josh 7.10, God said the same to Joshua

Ex 14:22

Ps 78.13 (like a dam) ; Ex 15.8 (thicken, condense, congeal); same word used to describe the "walled" cities throughout the scriptures; "The clause literally reads, 'and the waters [were] for them a wall.' The word order in Hebrew is disjunctive, with the vav (ו) on the noun introducing a circumstantial clause. There is no way to 'water down' the text to fit natural explanations; the report clearly shows a miraculous work of God making a path through the sea—a path that had to be as wide as half a mile in order for the many people and their animals to cross between about 2:00 a.m. and 6:00 a.m. (W. C. Kaiser, Jr., 'Exodus,' EBC 2:389). The text does not say that they actually only started across in the morning watch, however" (Biblical Studies Press, The NET Bible First Edition; Bible. English. NET Bible.; The NET Bible (Biblical Studies Press, 2006))

Ex 14:30

Egypt was never a world superpower after this; God both saved and destroyed Egypt with a Hebrew, here and Gen 41.49

Ex 14:31

Ex 15.24, in three days they would again be grumbling

Ex 15:8

Ps 78.13; Ex 14.22 ; Josh 3.16, the Jordan also rose up into a heap (ned), like a dam

Ex 15:14

Dt 2.25, God put "the fear of Him" in them

Ex 15:15

Nu 22.3 and Josh 2.9 , Moab and Canaan were in dread of Israel

Ex 15:16

"bought" is ktaomai, Acts 1.18 "acquired"

Ex 15:24

Three days after leaving Egypt, and they were grumbling; Dt 9.16; Gal 1.6-7; Ps 106.13; they would grumble seven times, Ex 15.24, Exodus 16:2, Numbers 11:1, Numbers 14:2, Numbers 16:11, Numbers 16:41, Deuteronomy 1:27

Ex 16:3

Heb 11.15, hope in a better world; One and a half months after leaving Egypt, they wanted to return; 1Pet 1.14, do not be conformed to the former lusts

Ex 16:4

Mt 6.11, daily bread

Ex 16:20

Lk 12.16-18, hoarding; also see Mt 6.26, where God provides for the birds, which neither sow, reap, nor gather; Prov 6.6 encourages the sluggard to mimic the ant in her preparation for the future

Ex 16:22–24

Lev 25.20-22, God makes provision for his people

Ex 16:27

Haggai 1.6, earning wages to put into a purse with holes

Ex 17:6

1Cor 10.4

Ex 17:7

Mt 14.31, Jesus claimed Peter had little faith because he doubted; see also Mt 8.25-26; Ps 78.17-22

Ex 17:11

Josh 8.26, Joshua did the same with Ai

Ex 17:14

1Sam 15.3, He ordered it

Ex 19:3

Moses ended up climbing that mountain four times (Ex 19.3, Exodus 19:20, Exodus 24:1, Exodus 34:2)

Ex 19:4

Is 40.31; When young eagles are learning to fly, the mother eagle flies under them with her wings spread out to catch them.

Ex 19:5

"The Sinai renewal merely stressed man’s responsibility where the Abrahamic Covenant emphasized God’s promise. The Priestly Covenant of Num 25:12–13, the Davidic Covenant of II Sam 7 and the New Covenant of Jer 31:31 are all administrative aspects of the same covenant, God’s Covenant of Grace" (Elmer B. Smick, "282 ברה", in Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament ( ed. R. Laird Harris et al.;, electronic ed.; Chicago: Moody Press, 1999), 129); The Mosaic Covenant was made with a people who had already been redeemed by God’s gracious deliverance from Egypt. So the covenant was given to Israel that they might enjoy fellowship with God and be prepared to receive his blessings (baptism and communion; 1st and 2nd half Lev)

Ex 19:10–11

Lk 13.32, third day

Ex 19:12–13

Eph 2.8-9

Ex 19:16

1K 19.11-12, activity on the mountain

Ex 19:19

Jn 12.29, God's voice sounds like thunder

Ex 20:1

Not "The Ten Suggestions"; Gal 3.24-25, the law was put in place to lead us to Christ; "The Ten Commandments are an excellent summary of 10 divine rules for human conduct. They might be called rules of (1) religion, (2) worship, (3) reverence, (4) time, (5) authority, (6) life, (7) purity, (8) property, (9) tongue, and (10) contentment" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 139); All 10 were repeated in the Epistles (after the law was fulfilled), except one: keep the Sabbath (Col 2.16; 2 of the 9 repeated in the epistles are not repeated in the gospels--idolatry (carved images) and coveting

Ex 20:1 Commandments repeated in the NT

1. You shall have no other gods before Me: You shall worship the Lord your God, and Him ONLY you shall serve. (Matthew 4:10); We know that an idol is nothing in the world, and that there is no other God but one. For even if there are so-called gods, whether in heaven or on earth (as there are many gods and many lords), yet for us there is ONE GOD, THE FATHER (1Corinthians 8:4-6)

2. You shall not make for yourself a carved image: Little children, keep yourselves from IDOLS. (1John 5:21); Therefore, since we are the offspring of God, we ought not to think that the Divine Nature is like gold or silver or stone, something shaped by art and man’s devising. (Acts 17:29); But the cowardly, unbelieving, abominable, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, IDOLATERS, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burns with fire and brimstone, which is the second death. (Revelation 21:8)

3. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain: In this manner, therefore, pray: "Our Father in heaven, HALLOWED BE YOUR NAME" (Matthew 6:9); that the NAME OF GOD and His doctrine may not be blasphemed. (1Timothy 6:1).

4. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy (command not found in the NT; Col 2.16)

5. Honor your father and your mother: Jesus said..."Honor your father and your mother" (Matthew 19:18-19); Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. "HONOR YOUR FATHER AND MOTHER" (Ephesian 6:1)

6. You shall not murder: Jesus said, "You shall not murder" (Matthew 19:18); You shall not murder (Romans 13:9)

7. You shall not commit adultery: Jesus said..."You shall not commit adultery" (Matthew 19:18); You shall not commit adultery (Romans 13:9)

8. You shall not steal: Jesus said..."You shall not steal" (Matthew 19:18); You shall not steal (Romans 13:9)

9. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor: Jesus said..."You shall not bear false witness" (Matthew 19:18); You shall not bear false witness (Romans 13:9)

10. You shall not covet: For I would not have known covetousness unless the law had said, "YOU SHALL NOT COVET" (Romans 7:7); You shall not covet (Romans 13:9)

Ex 20:3

1Cor 8.5, "so-called" gods

Ex 20:11

This verse would make little sense if God took thousands or millions of years to make everything

Ex 20:12

God knew He would be using this scripture as the Son (Mt 15.4)

Ex 20:17

2Cor 10.12, comparing yourself with others (coveting); Paul, Rom 7.7; Heb 10.34, they accepted joyfully the seizure of their property

Ex 20:19

"Do not let Moses or any of the prophets speak to me; but You speak, O Lord God, Who inspired and enlightened all the prophets; for You alone, without them, can instruct me perfectly, whereas they, without You, can do nothing. They, indeed, utter fine words, but they cannot impart the spirit. They do indeed speak beautifully, but if You remain silent they cannot inflame the heart. They deliver the message; You lay bare the sense. They place before us mysteries, but You unlock their meaning. They proclaim commandments; You help us to keep them. They point out the way; You give strength for the journey. They work only outwardly; You instruct and enlighten our hearts. They water on the outside; You give the increase" (Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, 1996), 95–96)

Ex 21:17

God knew He would be using this scripture as the Son (Mt 15.4)

Ex 22:1

Lk 19.8, repay four times as much

Ex 22:16

"Virgin" is bethulah in MT and parthenos in LXX

Ex 22:28

Rom 13.1, honor government established by God

Ex 23:1–2

Mt 26.59-60, false witnesses (see also Acts 6.11)

Ex 23:20

Mt 25.34, God prepares our home

Ex 24:3–4

Mk 7.8, Jesus accused the Pharisees of elevating the tradition of men (oral tradition) over the commandment of God. Here, Moses wrote down all the words of the Lord...there was no mention of an oral tradition.

Ex 24:8

Mt 27.25, the blood cleanses

Ex 24:10

Rev 4.3, precious minerals

Ex 24:13

NFL rookies attach themselves to vets in order to learn the trade

Ex 24:16–18

Gen 7.10-12, 40 days and 40 nights

Ex 25:2–8

Ex 11.2, this is where the contribution came from; 1Cor 3.12, what we use to build on the foundation of Christ (see also Ex 35.3-9); God doesn't use slave labor

Ex 25:10

God starts with the innermost, and moves out.

Ex 25:40

God is a God of order, 1Chr 15.13 ; 1Cor 14.40

Ex 26:1

Has no aorist in Rahlfs LXX

Ex 26:31–33

Separation between us (unholy) and God (holy), Mt 27.51 ; Gen 3.6 ; 2Cor 3.14; From Heb. 10:19, 20 we learn that the “veil” foreshadowed the Incarnation, God manifest in flesh—“through the veil, that is to say, His flesh.” It is surely significant that this “veil” was hung upon “four pillars of shittim wood overlaid with gold:” the wood, again, speaking of His humanity, and the gold of His Deity. Just as these “four pillars” served to display the beautiful veil, so in the four Gospels we have made manifest the perfections of the only-begotten of the Father tabernacling among men" (Arthur Walkington Pink, Why Four Gospels? (Swengel, PA: Bible Truth Depot, 1921), Introduction).

Ex 27:20

Feast of Dedication, Jn 10.22; Somewhat serendipitously, the Hebrew word chanukkah, which means “dedication,” occurs in the Old Testament eight times. This is also the number of days the Feast of Lights or Feast of Dedication lasts. It was and is observed for eight days beginning in the Jewish month of Kislev, December, on the twenty-fifth day (Holman Treasury, p. 46)

Ex 28:1

Levi (1Sam 2.28)

-God chose them to be His priests

-To go up to His altar

-To burn incense

-To carry an ephod

-Gave all the fire offerings of Israel to them

-Shall work before God forever

Ex 29:37

Mt 23.19, the alter makes it holy

Ex 30:19

Jn 13.8, washing feet

Ex 30:20

Lk 1.9, Zacharias entered the temple to burn incense

Ex 31:2–6

Eph 4.12 ; God does not call the equipped; He equips the called; 2Chr 2.13-14; we create our own gods, and then worship them (Jer 10.3-5) ; getting ahead of God, Gen 16.4, Ex 2.12 and Gen 3.7; Mt 4.9, Jesus refused to get ahead of God; using God's blessings and gifts to glorify something other than God (Ezek 16.17)

Ex 32:1

Acts 7.40, delayed gratification; Ezek 16.17 ; 1K 12.28, Jeroboam also made golden calves for worship

Ex 32:4

Hos 2.8, God gave them the gold, but they used it to worship an idol; see also Hos 10.1

Ex 32:7

God calls them "your people, whom you brought up"; Moses, in verse 12, challenges this claim

Ex 32:11

Moses reminded God that He brought the people out of Egypt. God, in Ex 33.1, claims Moses brought the people out of Egypt.

Ex 32:13

Dt 9.20, intercession

Ex 32:19

Comparison of Moses and Tablets, Jesus and Tempter (Mt 4.1-11)

-40 days

-Stones (Dt 8.3)

-Cast down

-Worship Satan

-Left him for a season

Ex 32:20

Faith is only as good as the object in which it is placed

Ex 32:22–24

-Adam (blamed God and eve; Gen 3.12)

-Eve (blamed the serpent; Gen 3.13)

-Aaron (blamed Moses, the fire, and the gold; Ex 32.23-24)

-Saul (blamed the Samuel, God, and the people; 1Sam 15.21)

Ex 32:26

Like Jehu, 2K 9.32

Ex 32:27

Counter-cultural, Acts 5.5 ; Lk 14.26

Ex 32:32

Rom 9.3, I wish I were accursed for the sake of my brethren; Ps 139.16 and Ps 56.8, Your Book

Ex 33:12–13

Ezek 22.30, Moses found favor with God

Ex 33:21–23

1K 19.11-13, God passed by Elijah

Ex 34:6

Jonah 4.2, Jonah recognized God as having these characteristics

Ex 35:3–9

Ex 25.2-8; 1Cor 3.12

Ex 35:21

A cheerful giver, 1 Chr. 29:9, 2 Chr 31:10 ; Ezra 1.6 ; 2Cor 9.7

Ex 35:22–29

Ex 11.2, where the contributions came from

Ex 36:1

No Rahlfs LXX or LHB imperatives in Ex 36-40, The Building of the Tabernacle (=37-40 in Rahlfs LXX)

Ex 36:5

More than enough, 1 Chr 29.9; 2 Chr 31.10

Ex 37:1

Top perfect as a ratio to other verbs, Rahlfs LXX

Ex 38:24–29

"The materials included a little over a ton of gold (38:24), almost four tons of silver (vv. 25–28), and about two and one-half tons of bronze (vv. 29–31)" (John D. Hannah, "Exodus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 161)

Ex 40:17

Completed one year after the first Passover

Ex 40:34

The honeymoon period between God and Israel

Le 1:1 Leviticus

The first part of Leviticus deals primarily with Israel's approach to God by sacrifice (chapters 1-16), while the second part deals with their walk in holiness before the Lord (chapters 17-27); Leviticus is over-represented by "I am the Lord," exceeded only by Ezekiel; over-represented with cohen (194x) and dam; 40% of all laws come from Lev.


‎"The Levitical sacrificial system was instituted for a people redeemed from Egypt and in covenant relationship with their God. Thus sacrifice in Israel was not a human effort to obtain favor with a hostile God but a response to the Lord who had first given Himself to Israel in covenant relationship. Yet whenever sin or impurity, whether ethical or ceremonial, disrupted this fellowship, the individual or the nation (whichever was the case) renewed covenant fellowship with the Lord through sacrifice, the particular sacrifice depending on the exact circumstance of the disruption. This approach to God through sacrifice could, of course, be purely dedicatory or communal if no disruption had taken place, but this seems to have been the exception rather than the norm" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 163-64.)


‎"The Levitical sacrifices were efficacious both for restoring the covenant relationship and (when offered in faith) for the actual forgiveness of particular sins, but this efficacy was derivative, needing to be validated by the one all-sufficient sacrifice of Christ on the cross. Though the sacrifices were limited in scope and purpose, their spiritual value was also pedagogical in teaching Israel about the right way to approach a holy God: 'First of all, sin had to be dealt with; the appropriate offering (sin or guilt) had to be made. This was closely linked with a burnt offering that followed it immediately (with its accompanying cereal offering as stated in many cases) and thus completed the self-committal (2 Chron. 29:31) that qualified the supplicant(s) for the last stage of the liturgy. The crowning phase was the presentation of [additional] burnt and peace offerings, the former including both the voluntary gifts of individuals and the calendrical offerings symbolizing the constant devotion of the people as a whole, [and] the latter representing the communal experience in which the Lord, the priest, and the worshiper … all had a share' (A.F. Rainey, “Sacrifice,” The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible, 4:203)" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 166)

Offerings (per chapter): 1-Burnt, 2-Grain, 3-Peace, 4-Sin, 5-Guilt

‎"A way to classify the offerings would be describing the burnt and grain offerings as dedicatory, the fellowship offering (and its subsidiary offerings—thanksgiving, votive, and freewill) as communal, and the sin and guilt offerings as expiatory (but the concepts of atonement, forgiveness, and propitiation are present in all the offerings to one degree or another" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 173); There is sin which cannot be atoned for (Nu 15.30-31; Heb 10.26 ; 2Pet 2.20; Lk 12.47-48)


Joseph and Esau not mentioned in Leviticus MT; Abraham and Isaac only mentioned once in Leviticus MT; ‎Levites are mentioned only once in the book (25:32); over-represented with hamartia/hamartanw by words in Rahlfs LXX, and chatat/chata by words in LHB

Top 10 chapters agios in LXX

Ps 98 (99 in MT)

Lev 21

Ps 133 (134 in MT)

Lev 22

Lev 10

Lev 6

Exod 30

Lev 27

Ps 19 (20 in MT)

Ps 150


Top 10 LHB dam (by words)

Lev

Hab

Joel

Ezek

Hos

Nah

Exod

Deut

Jonah

Micah


Top 15 LHB dam chapters (by words)

Lev 17

Joel 3

Lev 4

Lev 12

Num 35

Ezek 35

Ezek 22

Isa 34

Josh 20

Lev 20

Lev 16

Lev 3

Exod 24

Lev 1

Lev 9


Top 5 agios in LXX

Lev

Obad

Exod

Hab

Num


This is one of the first books Jewish children were required to learn, and one of the last books we read today.


The sacrificial animals are “the priests of the animal world,” that is, as the Gentiles are symbolized by unclean animals, and Israel by clean animals, the priests are symbolized by sacrificial animals (BKC?)


over-represented with chata and chatat by words in LHB and hamartia by words in Rahlfs LXX (followed by Micah and Numbers by words in both Rahlfs LXX and LHB for hamartia and chatat)

Le 1:1

Probably written the month between the completion of the Tabernacle and the book of Numbers

Le 3:1

"The distinctive feature of the fellowship offering was its accompanying communal meal" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 185); top future as ratio to other verbs, Rahlfs LXX

Le 4:2

Ps 19.12, conform us to the image of Christ; David knew there was no offering for premeditated sin, Ps 51.16

Le 5

This chapter is over-represented with chata (heb, v-sin), followed by Lev 4.

Le 5:4

Mt 12.36, careless words

Le 5:6

"The distinctive purpose of the sin offering was to atone and provide forgiveness for specific unintentional or nondefiant sins where (in contrast with the guilt offering) no restitution was involved. God accepted the slaughter of the animal as a ransom payment for the particular sin which occasioned it, thus diverting His wrath from the sinner and (ultimately) to Christ on the cross" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 182)

Le 6:1

The distinctive feature of the guilt offering was the restitution payment and fine to the wronged party, either man or God (BKC); reparation was expected, for though forgiveness comes by grace, sin always produces damaging consequences, particularly in terms of loss to fellow human beings (Holman Bible Handbook)

Le 7:35

Levi (1Sam 2.28)

-God chose them to be His priests (Ex 28.1)

-To go up to His altar

-To burn incense

-To carry an ephod

-Gave all the fire offerings of Israel to them

-Shall work before God forever

Le 8:23

James 1.22, the Word moving from the head, to the heart, to the hands (Rom 2.13)

Le 9:7

Priests had to offer for themselves as well, since they were weak, limited, sinners (Heb 7.27-28)

Le 9:8

"Since Aaron had sinned previously by making a golden calf (Ex. 32), it is ironic that he now offered as his first sin offering a calf as if to atone for that sin" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 188)

Le 10:1

1K 12.33, Jeroboam probably did the same

Le 10:2

Josh 7.25 , Nu 15.32–36, Nu 16.1–35, Acts 12.23, 1Cor 11.30, 2Sam 6.1-11 ; Ex 32.27; Acts 5.5; “The moral of the story” as summarized by Moses is that those who have the privilege of being nearest to God must bear special responsibility to exemplify His holiness and glory (BKC)

Le 10:19 Rhetorical Questions

Gen 34.31 —Jacob’s Daughter, Nu 12:14—Miriam, Jonah 4:11—Nineveh

Le 12:8

Lk 2.22-24, they were poor

Le 13:46

Distinction between holy and unholy, 1Cor 5.13 ; Gal 5.9

Le 15:25

Mk 5.25, a discharge of blood

Le 16:2

There's only one way, Jn 14.6; Esther 4.11 ; Acts 4.12

Le 17:1 Blood

Top 5 Dam chapters in LHB (by words)

Lev 17

Joel 3

Lev 4

Lev 12

Num 35

Le 18:3–20

Gen 9.25-27, the curse of Canaan

Le 18:12–14

Moses was a product of Amram and Amram's aunt, Jochebed (Ex 2.1)

Le 18:22

Detestable (bdelugma, LXX) is the same word used for abomination in Lk 16.15

Le 19:1

Top "I am the Lord" chapter in Bible

Le 20:13

Detestable (bdelugma, LXX) is the same word used for abomination in Lk 16.15; ἀρσενοκοίτης (1Cor 6.9 and 1Tim 1.10) is a compound word based on two Greek words used in both of the Leviticus texts condemning homosexual acts as found in the LXX. Leviticus 18:22 in the Septuagint says, “Do not lie with a male [arsenos] as one lies [koiten] with a woman,” while Leviticus 20:13 reads, “Whoever lies with a male as one lies [arsenos koiten] with a woman.” The word arsenokoites was evidently coined by Greek-speaking Jews (possibly even by Paul himself) to refer to persons guilty of engaging in the act forbidden in these texts. Thus Paul is not referring to male prostitutes or to some other special class of persons, but to anyone who engages in homosexual acts.

Le 22:23

The one exception that allowed an animal with certain defects as an offering was in the case of a freewill offering

Le 23:1 Festivals

‎The interrelated spring and early summer festivals are thought to typify the events of Christ’s First Advent: (a) the death of Christ on the cross as the Passover Lamb (1 Cor. 5:7), (b) the believer’s holy walk and complete break from the old life, pictured by the absence of leaven (1 Cor. 5:7-8) (others think the unleavened bread pictures the sinless humanity of Christ), (c) the resurrection of Christ as prefigured by the firstfruits of the barley harvest (1 Cor. 15:20-23), and (d) the advent of the Holy Spirit as a fulfillment of the Feast of Pentecost (Acts 2; cf. Joel 2:28). The break in the festival calendar before the fall festivals suggests the present interadvent period during which Israel’s messianic King is in heaven. The fall festivals prefigure events associated with His Second Advent: (a) Israel’s future regathering at the end of the Tribulation period (Feast of Trumpets; Matt. 24:29-31), (b) Israel’s national conversion at the Second Advent based on the death of Christ at the First Advent (Day of Atonement; Heb. 9:23-28; Zech. 12:10-13:1; Rom. 11:26-27), and (c) Israel’s blessing by God on the millennial earth (Feast of Tabernacles, Zech. 14:9-20). (BKC)

Le 23:5

"The first anniversary of the Passover was observed at Sinai (Num. 9:1–5) but it was not celebrated again till Israel camped at Gilgal across the Jordan in the Promised Land (Josh. 5:10–12)" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 206)

Le 23:10–11

1Cor 15.23, Christ is our first fruits; according to Josephus (and v. 11) , this took place on the second day of unleavened bread, the day that Christ rose from the dead (Jn 20.1)

Le 23:15

"The Feast of Weeks is not identified in the Old Testament with some prior occasion in Israel’s history that it commemorates. Jewish tradition, however, supplied such an occasion by relating it to the day Moses was given the Law of God on Mount Sinai" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 206-07)

Le 23:27

1Sam 2.25, who can intercede between man and God?

Le 23:39–43

Neh 8.14

Le 24:12

"This is one of four such cases where Moses had to await further divine revelation before a situation could be properly handled (cf. Num. 9:6–14; 15:32–36; 27:1–11)" (F. Duane Lindsey, "Leviticus", in , vol. 1, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures ( ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck;Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 209)

Le 24:17–20

Lex Talionis

Le 25:3–5

Jer 25.11, for 490 years they failed to allow the land to lie fallow

Le 25:20–22

Ex 16.22-24, God makes provisions

Le 25:23

Mt 21.33, the landowner

Le 26:13

1Jn 5.3, His commandments are not burdensome (also see Mt 11.30, His burden is light); 2Chr 12.7-8, the difference between serving God and serving the world; Ps 19.11 ; Ecc 12.13, fear God and keep His commandments; see also 1Jn 5.3

Le 26:34–35

Dt 5.15, they forgot what it was like to be a slave, and gave the land no rest

Le 27:34

Mal 4.4, the law was for Israel; Same ending as Numbers, except here it was at Sinai

Nu 1:1 Numbers

Abraham and Isaac only mentioned once in Numbers MT; Esau not mentioned in Numbers MT; 14.22-23 is the theme of the book; Moses (Nu 12.7-8), Caleb (Nu 14.24) , Phinehas (Nu 25.11), Joshua (Nu 27.18) have a different spirit in this book; "The Book of Numbers takes its English name from the Septuagint which calls it Arithmoi, 'Numbers.' The reason for this is that the book contains many statistics such as tribal population figures, the totals of the priests and Levites, and other numerical data. The Hebrew name is bemiḏbar, the fifth word in the book, and means 'in the desert of.'" (Eugene H. Merrill, “Numbers,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 215); midbar (wilderness) is over-represented in Numbers, eclipsed only by Joel

Nu 2:1

Rev 21.13; Herod's Temple had layered courts, Mk 11.15; Dt 14.24-26

Nu 2:9

Rev 19.11-16 , Jesus leads in battle

Nu 3:39

"The total number of Levites … was 22,000 whereas the total reached by adding up the figures in verses 22, 28, and 34 is 22,300. The 22,000 figure cannot be a rounding off since the 22,273 firstborn of Israel outnumbered the Levites by 273 (v. 46). The most satisfying solution is to suppose that the excess 300 were themselves the firstborn of the Levites who obviously could not serve to redeem the firstborn of Israel" (Eugene H. Merrill, Numbers, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 220)

Nu 6:25

Ps 80.3, His face to shine upon us

Nu 8:24–25

This ensured God got the best of their lives (25-50)

Nu 11:5

Nutraloaf is usually bland, perhaps even unpleasant, but prison wardens argue that nutraloaf provides enough nutrition to keep prisoners healthy without requiring utensils to be issued; Jer 44.17-18 and Ex 14.12, not realizing they were in bondage to sin

Nu 11:23

Nothing is too hard for the Lord, Gen 18.14; Jer 32.17 ; Is 59.1 ; Ex 14.13

Nu 11:29

Acts 26.29, would God put His spirit in everyone

Nu 11:31–34

Phil 3.18-19 , whose god is their belly

Nu 12:1

Ex 2.4-8, Miriam was instrumental is saving Moses' life as an infant; Jesus siblings (Jn 7.5 ), Joseph's siblings (Gen 37.18 ), Esau and Jacob (Gen 27.41 ), Cain and Abel (Gen 4.8 )

Nu 12:2

Nu 16.10; Is 14.13-14, jealousy over leadership

Nu 12:6–8

Dan 2.21-23, God makes known mysteries

Nu 12:7

Heb 3.2 ; Mt 25.21

Nu 12:11–12

The High Priest needs intercession

Nu 12:13

Moses prays for his sister here, and his brother in Dt 9.20

Nu 12:14 Rhetorical Questions

Gen 34.31 —Jacob’s Daughter, Lev 10.19—Aaron’s sons die, Jonah 4:11—Nineveh

Nu 13:27

It was a "turn-key" country

Nu 13:31–33 Walk by Faith

The Great Divorce; walking by sight, not by faith (2Cor 5.7) ; Mt 7.13-14, Joshua and Caleb chose the narrow way

Nu 13:33

1Sam 17.4, Goliath would eventually arise from this group, since Joshua left some in Philistia (Josh 11.22)

Nu 14:2

They would get their wish

Nu 14:3

Actually, their little ones would make it, and they wouldn't (Dt 1.39)

Nu 14:4

Neh 9.17, they did not remember God wondrous deeds He had performed among them

Nu 14:9

Job 1.10, God protects and removes protection

Nu 14:11

Thomas got to see and touch also, Jn 20.29 ; blessed are those who never get to see or touch, and yet believe

Nu 14:18

Chesed of God, Ex 20:6; 34:6, 7; Deut 5:10; 7:9; Ps 103:8; 145:8; Jon 4:2

Nu 14:22–23

The theme of the book; Heb 3.16-19; Heb 4.6; Ex 5:21; 14:11; 15:24; 16:2; 17:2, 3; 32:1; Num 11:1, 4; 12:1; 14:2; a connection to the 10 plagues?; Heb 11.6 and Rom 8.25, the here and now will destroy you, causing you to lean on the visible; hear and do, James 1.22-25; Ezek 33.31 ; Mt 7.24-27 ; Rev 1.3 ; Rom 2.13 ; Lev 8.23; the Word moving from the head, to the heart, to the hands; Israel heard but did not obey (Rev 3.20; Acts 12.13); Rom 4.21, others did believe God could perform what He promised; Dt 7.17-19, God told them to remember how He brought them out of Egypt, and how He would do the same to the Canaanites; 1Sam 4.8, even the Philistines feared God after what He did in Egypt

Nu 14:24

Gen 41.28, Joseph; Nu 27.18 , Joshua; Dan 6:3, Daniel; Acts 11:24, Barnabas; Caleb, Nu 14.24 ; Parallel with Nu 25.11-13 , followed/zealous, land/covenant, seed/seed; Kenizzites (Josh 14.6) were a tribe of Canaan in Abraham’s day. Caleb’s family then was originally outside the covenant and commonwealth of Israel as were Heber the Kenite (Jud. 4:17), Ruth the Moabitess (Ruth 1:1–5), Uriah the Hittite (2 Sam. 11:3, 6, 24), Rahab, and others. It is apparent that the Kenizzites in part at least joined the tribe of Judah before the Exodus. So their faith was not hereditary but was the fruit of conviction (BKC)

Nu 14:27

10 was the number needed to form a congregation (synagogue), since the "evil congregation" consisted of the spies who had brought a bad report, and whose number was ten -- after deducting, of course, Joshua and Caleb.

Nu 14:29

Jude 5 says this was Jesus Who destroyed the unbelievers

Nu 14:30

Not even Moses is mentioned for the omniscient Lord foresaw his future disobedience regarding the rock and water (20:12).

Nu 14:33

"Children sometimes must bear the results of their parents’ sins (v. 33; cf. Ex. 20:5; Deut. 24:16). This does not contradict Ezekiel 18:1–3, 13–18 because Moses was referring to material and physical aftereffects whereas Ezekiel spoke of individual responsibility and culpability for sin and its spiritual results" (Eugene H. Merrill, Numbers, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 232); Coach used to tell us to take another lap, or Marine Silent Drill Platoon taking lap with M14 over head

Nu 14:40–45

1K 22.15, Micaiah sarcastically told them to go up and succeed, the LORD is with you

Nu 15:30–31

Defiant sin, Heb 10.26 ; 2Pet 2.13-20 ; Lk 12.47-48 ; Rom 1.32 ; Ps 19.13

Nu 15:39

Prov 3.5-6, put no trust in your own wisdom

Nu 16:3

Nu 12.2, jealousy over leadership

Nu 16:4

Falling on your face, Nu 14:5; 16:22, 45; 20:6; 22:31

Nu 16:7

Which God is God, 1K 18.24 ; Mt 17.5

Nu 16:10

Is 14.13-14, asserting your will over God's

Nu 16:13

Dathan and Abiram called Egypt a "land flowing with milk and honey" (God calls Israel the same, Dt 11.9)

Nu 16:15

Not taken anything, 1Sam 12.3, Josh 7.24

Nu 16:48

Ezek 22.30, stand in the gap

Nu 20:10

We? I thought Moses was just the instrument God used to bring water from the rock; Ps 106.32-33

Nu 20:11

Moses' anger, Ex 2.12; Ex 11.8 : God still blesses in spite of Moses' disobedience (Psalm 78:21–25)

Nu 20:12

Ezek 36.22-23, the holiness of God's Name; Moses robbed God's glory (Act 12.22-23, Agrippa 1). For this reason, he did not finish well (like Solomon, 1K 11.4) ; later, Moses would try to change God's mind about allowing him to cross the Jordan, Dt 3.23-27; Dt 32.51 ; Dan 4.31 and Nebuchadnezzar: Is 10.12-19 , the king of Assyria; Hezekiah, Isaiah 39.1-2; David, 2Sam 24.2

Nu 20:18–20

No peace between Jacob and Esau, Obad 10 ; Gen 27.41

Nu 20:29

Dt 34.8, 30 days of mourning

Nu 21:5

According to 1Cor 10.9, the people spoke against Christ

Nu 21:8

2Cor 5.21, it was made the thing which caused the problem; 2K 18.4, they later worshipped it; see also 1Sam 6.4

Nu 22:3

From Ex 15.15, the song of Moses

Nu 22:6

Gen 12.3, God will bless those who bless Israel, curse those who curse Israel

Nu 22:9

"The appearance of the God of Israel to unbelieving prophets and kings was not unique to Balaam. God revealed himself to Abimelech king of Gerar in Abraham’s time (Gen. 20:6–7), to a Pharaoh in dreams (Gen. 41:25), to Nebuchadnezzar in a dream and visions (Dan. 4:1–18), and to others" (Eugene H. Merrill, Numbers, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 241)

Nu 22:22

The Lord had already given Balaam permission to go (v. 20) so this resistance was not against his going but against his unspoken motive or intention (he “loved the wages of wickedness,” 2 Peter 2:15), which was obviously contrary to God’s will (cf. Num. 22:32b, 34–35)" (Eugene H. Merrill, Numbers, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 242)

Nu 22:31

2K 6.17, the LORD opened the eyes of Elisha's servant so he could see the army of the LORD

Nu 22:38

1K 22.14, Jer 20.9, only speaking what God has authorized

Nu 24:2

"This coming of the Spirit no more proves that Balaam was a true prophet than the coming of the Spirit on Saul (see comments on 1 Sam. 10:6, 10–11) or the disciples (John 20:22) made them prophets of the Lord. There is a difference between the Spirit’s coming on individuals to empower them supernaturally and His coming into them to abide (see comments on John 7:39)" (Eugene H. Merrill, Numbers, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 244)

Nu 24:9

Gen 12.3, cursing and blessing

Nu 24:13

1K 13.8

Nu 24:25–25:1

Balaam eventually succeeded in cursing Israel, but it was by assimilation, not annihilation (Nu 31.16; Rev 2.14; Gen 3.15 )

Nu 25:1–9

Rev 2.14 and Nu 31.16 attributes this to the counsel of Balaam; Ps 106.28 ; Acts 15.20, the Jerusalem council determined Gentile converts should avoid these things, also

Nu 25:7–8

Zealous for God, Neh 13.8 ; Ezek 22.30 ; Phinehas had to once again confront those perceived to be in violation of God's command (Josh 22.17-18)

Nu 25:9

"1 Corinthians 10:8 says 23,000 people died in this incident, whereas Numbers 25:9 has 24,000. This apparent discrepancy can be explained by Paul’s mention of “one day,” with the understanding that another 1,000 may have died on another day or days. Or 24,000 may have included the leaders, whereas 23,000 did not" (Eugene H. Merrill, Numbers, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 246)

Nu 25:11–13

Parallel with Nu 14.24, followed/zealous, land/covenant, seed/seed

Nu 26:10

1Cor 10.6

Nu 26:14

This was the smallest population, probably because of Simeon’s involvement in the Baal of Peor idolatry (25:14–15).

Nu 27:16

Moses didn't presume upon the Lord that Joshua would succeed him

Nu 27:18–20

Understudies (Joshua, Nu 27.18-20; Elisha, 1K 19.16; Timothy, 2Tim 1.5-6)

1. Clung to their mentor

2. Subordinate to their mentor

3. Received a blessing/authority from their mentor (by the hand of God)

Nu 27:18

Nu 14.24, Caleb; Gen 41.28, Joseph; Dan 6:3, Daniel; Acts 11:24, Barnabas

Nu 31:16

Rev 2.14 and Nu 25.1-9, describes how Balaam accomplished this (to eat things sacrificed to idols, and to commit acts of immorality with the daughters of Moab); Acts 15.20, the Jerusalem council determined Gentile converts should avoid these things, also

Nu 32:1–5

"Was the request of the two and one-half tribes to settle in Transjordan a wise one? History would seem to answer no. Their territories had no natural boundaries to the east and were therefore constantly exposed to invasion by the Moabites, Canaanites, Arameans, Midianites, Amalekites, and others. And when the king of Assyria looked covetously toward Canaan, Reuben, Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh were the first to be carried into captivity by the Assyrian armies (1 Chron. 5:26). The two and one-half tribes chose, as Lot did, on the basis of appearance (cf. Gen. 13:10–11), and their inheritance was ultimately lost to them. On the other hand the Levites, requesting no portion, were given an inheritance of abiding spiritual significance" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 356.)

Nu 32:1

Like Lot in Gen 13.10, the three tribes "saw" a better place, and chose it over God's choice

Nu 32:9

Discouraging the people, Mt 23.13

Nu 32:23

Gal 6.7 , sowing and reaping sin

Nu 33:51–54

Gen 9.25, Canaan prepared the land for his brother to take

Nu 33:55–56

1Cor 11.31, Israel needed to judge themselves (rid all that would cause them to forsake God), else God would do it for them

Nu 35:33

Gen 4.10, Abel's blood was crying to God from the ground

Nu 35:34

Dt 23.12-14, keep your camp holy

Nu 36:13

Same ending as Leviticus (except here it was in Moab); Mal 4.4, the law was for Israel

Dt 1:1 Deuteronomy

Imperative 2S yarash (rash, take possession) 5X, all Dt except for 1K 21.15; "God is giving" 33X; means "Second Law," so names because Moses wanted to review the law with the Israelites before crossing the Jordan; Moses' upper Moab discourse--like John this book is supplementary to the Pentateuch; Jesus quoted from this book more than any other (first mention of God's love for us, Dt 7.7)


Overrepresented with 2s in MT (God to us), followed by Ps; Top elohim book by words

Dt 1:2

Disbelief and disobedience turned a 11-day journey into 40 years; Jonah 2.2

Dt 1:27

Did not believe God had their best interest at heart, and that He was powerless against the Amorites.

Dt 1:28

Judges 1.20, Caleb had no problem driving the Anakim out

Dt 1:39

Age of accountability, 2Sam 12.23 ; Nu 14.3; "knowledge of good and evil" is same Hebrew construction as Gen 2.17

Dt 1:41–45

We approach God on His terms, not on our terms, Gen 3.7

Dt 2:25

Ex 15.11, the people have heard what God has done for Israel, and they tremble

Dt 3:23–28

"Moses the lawgiver cannot bring us into the heavenly Canaan though he can bring us to the border of it. At that point he is superseded by Joshua, the type of Jesus, who leads the true Israel into their inheritance. The law leads us to Christ, and there its office ceases" (Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset, and David Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc., 1997), Ga 3:25)

Dt 3:23–27

Nu 20.12, Moses did not treat God holy in the sight of Israel

Dt 3:26

God entertained Abraham's plea, Gen 18.32

Dt 4:4

Job 2.3, holding fast to God

Dt 4:5–8

Mt 5.13-16, Christians are to be salt and light, different from the world (Solomon, 2Chr 9.1-9) ; Heb 11.13, Phil 3.20, Jn 17.16, we are not of this world

Dt 4:6

"In contrast with all other nations Israel was not to be distinguished by her natural resources, wealth, or military might, but by her moral skill and close relationship to God, both of which would come from her obeying her moral constitution" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 269)

Dt 4:16–19

Exact opposite order in which God filled His creation

Dt 4:20

The fact that Israel was taken out of Egypt is mentioned about 20 times in Deut.

Dt 4:29 Seeking God

Two types of people: those who seek God (who say to God, “Thy will be done”), and those who seek to avoid God (to whom God says, “Thy will be done”)…both will be successful.

Dt 4:37

First recorded mention of God's love for us; proved it in Rom 5.8

Dt 5:6

The 10 Commandments were not designed to redeem Israel (God has already done that), they were designed to enable Israel to walk with God

Dt 5:11

Ezek 36.22-23, God protects the holiness of His Name

Dt 5:15

Lev 26.34-35, but the Israelites did not allow the land to rest

Dt 5:17–20

"The sixth through ninth commandments thus acknowledge a person’s right to his life, home, property, and reputation" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 273)

Dt 5:21

Rom 7.7-8; "It may have been possible for someone to keep the first nine commandments but no one could have avoided breaking the 10th at some time. In this respect the 10th commandment is the most forceful of all, because it made people aware of their inability to keep God’s Law perfectly. And this awareness threw them back to depend on God’s grace and mercy" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 273)

Dt 5:29

Ecc 12.13, fear God and keep His commandments; Ps 81.13

Dt 6:2

Ecc 12.13, fear God and keep His commandments

Dt 6:4–5 Parenting

One, ehad, same word in Gen 2.24 , "They shall become one flesh"; As parents, we cannot impart to our children what we ourselves do not possess. Unless we have a growing relationship with God in Christ, we cannot expect our children to desire the same. The first prerequisite to being a godly parent is to love God with our minds, emotions, and wills, and this requires an ongoing relationship of trust, dependence, and communion with the Lord (see the booklet on the spiritual life). It is only as we respond to God's love that we can walk in it; spiritual vitality must be in our hearts before it can be in our homes (Ken Boa, Perspectives on Parenthood)


Jn 10.30, Jesus and the Father are one (eis, both here and Dt 6.4 LXX)


"The Israelites could therefore have a sense of security that was totally impossible for their polytheistic neighbors. The “gods” of the ancient Near East rarely were thought of as acting in harmony. Each god was unpredictable and morally capricious. So a pagan worshiper could never be sure that his loyalty to one god would serve to protect him from the capricious wrath of another. The monotheistic doctrine of the Israelites lifted them out of this insecurity since they had to deal with only one God, who dealt with them by a revealed consistent righteous standard" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 274)

Dt 6:5

On Loving God, by St. Bernard of Clairvaux (Ch. 10, The Fourth Degree of Love):

In this life, I think, we cannot fully and perfectly obey that precept, 'Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind' (Luke 10:27). For here the heart must take thought for the body; and the soul must energize the flesh; and the strength must guard itself from impairment. And by God's favor, must seek to increase. It is therefore impossible to offer up all our being to God, to yearn altogether for His face, so long as we must accommodate our purposes and aspirations to these fragile, sickly bodies of ours. Wherefore the soul may hope to possess the fourth degree of love, or rather to be possessed by it, only when it has been clothed upon with that spiritual and immortal body, which will be perfect, peaceful, lovely, and in everything wholly subjected to the spirit. And to this degree no human effort can attain: it is in God's power to give it to whom He wills. Then the soul will easily reach that highest stage, because no lusts of the flesh will retard its eager entrance into the joy of its Lord, and no troubles will disturb its peace. May we not think that the holy martyrs enjoyed this grace, in some degree at least, before they laid down their victorious bodies? Surely that was immeasurable strength of love which enraptured their souls, enabling them to laugh at fleshly torments and to yield their lives gladly. But even though the frightful pain could not destroy their peace of mind, it must have impaired somewhat its perfection.


2K 23.25, Josiah "turned to the Lord with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his might"

Dt 6:6–9

The Christian home has been called "a laboratory for the application of biblical truth in a relational setting." It is a training ground for the impartation of values, for learning how to give and receive love, and for the development of relationships. Parents are responsible to provide for their children's material needs. But they have also been entrusted with the responsibility of shaping their children's character and guiding their spiritual, psychological, intellectual, emotional, and physical growth. This is not to be left by default to outside institutions. The primary spiritual and moral training of children should be in the home, not in the church or school (Ken Boa, Perspectives on Parenthood); Most education in Israel took place in the home as the parents taught their children spiritual and moral principles (cf. Prov. 1:8-9; 4:1-13) as well as practical skills. When synagogue worship was developed after the Babylonian exile, male children attended synagogue schools where they learned the Bible and the Talmud (the Jewish traditions and commentaries on the Law). Jesus probably studied at the synagogue school in Nazareth. Saul of Tarsus had the privilege of studying under the great Pharisaical rabbi Gamaliel (Acts 22:3) (Ken Boa, Bible Companion Handbook);


The secret of a disciplined child is a disciplined parent


I used to have no children and 4 theories on raising children...I now have 4 children and no theories on raising children


"At ten the child began to study the Mishnah; at fifteen he must be ready for the Talmud, which would be explained to him in a more advanced academy. If after three, or at most five, years of tuition the child had not made decided progress, there was little hope of his attaining to eminence. In the study of the Bible the pupil was to proceed from the book of Leviticus to the rest of the Pentateuch, thence to the Prophets, and lastly to the Hagiographa. This regulation was in accordance with the degree of value which the Rabbis attached to these divisions of the Bible. In the case of advanced pupils the day was portioned out—one part being devoted to the Bible, the other two to the Mishnah and the Talmud" (Alfred Edersheim, Sketches of Jewish Social Life in the Days of Christ (Bellingham, WA: Logos Bible Software, 2003), 136–137)


Deuteronomy lays great stress not on the priests or other religious leaders, but on the parents as the ones responsible for their children’s spiritual education (vv. 9–10; 6:7, 20; 11:19; 31:13; 32:46).


Prov 6.20-22, commandments on your heart, when you walk, sleep, and rise.


Dt 11.18-20 ; This is the "bind-write" principle--spiritual truth must be bound up in our actions ("hand") and attitudes ("head"), and it must be inscribed in our private ("doorposts") and public ("gates") lives. In short, it must move from our hearts into our homes, and from our homes into our habits. When it is woven into the fabric of our lives, it affects every aspect of our character, and Christian character becomes contagious when children see it acted out every day. Joshua illustrated this principle when he said, "but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord" (Josh. 24:15b) (Ken Boa, Perspectives in Parenthood); Rev 13.16; In addition to documents, the caves near Qumran also yielded a substantial number of mezuzot (attached to doorposts of homes) and tefillin (phylacteries, worn on left hand and forehead during prayer) that contain texts from Exodus and Deuteronomy. (The Oxford History of the Biblical World, M.D. Coogan, ed, p. 488); see also Ex 13.16


Jer 31.33, God will write the New Covenant on their hearts; We must not only respond to God's love, but also to His Word. Scripture speaks to every dimension of life, and our effectiveness in any area depends on the degree to which we know and apply relevant biblical principles. If we try to raise children by doing what comes naturally, we will be ineffective. Children are such imitators that the power of example does more to train a child than anything else. It is as we become embodiments of our own teaching that we establish true authority, but this takes personal discipline and conscious effort. Elton Trueblood observed in The Recovery of Family Life that "The parent makes the mistake, frequently, of concentrating on the child when he would help the child more if he would concentrate on himself." (Ken Boa, Perspectives on Parenthood)

Dt 6:10–12

Dt 8.12-14, don't forget Who brought you here (see also Dt 32.14); Gen 9.25-26, Canaan would prepare the land for Israel

Dt 6:13

God knew later He would be quoting this verse to Satan (Mt 4.10)

Dt 6:14

1Cor 8.5, "so-called" gods

Dt 6:16

God knew later He would be quoting this verse to Satan (Mt 4.7)

Dt 6:18–19

Gen 9.25-26 ; Gen 17.8; Canaan would be servant to both Japheth and Shem; Lev 18.3-20 describes the moral depravity of the Canaanites; Dt 6.10-11 describes how the Canaanites prepared the land for Israel

Dt 6:20–23 Spiritual Development of Children

A third prerequisite to the spiritual development of children is a readiness to share experiences of God's work in our lives (verses 20-23), particularly in specific answers to prayer. In effect, then, we are living models for our children. What we are communicates far more than what we say; spirituality is more caught than taught. The intimacies of home life soon expose an artificial front, so there is little point in teaching what we do not practice. We must demonstrate with our lives the reality of our faith. The greater the correspondence between what we are and what we say, the more completely our children will identify with our standards (integrity is the degree of congruence between our ethics and morality). If parents are committed to growth and positive spiritual change, their children will pick that up. If they are committed to the importance of seeing others come to Christ, their children will also learn by that. Children will not walk in the ways of God simply because they are told to do so. They respond to reality, not to lip service or pretense. Few things are more confusing than people who give good advice but set bad examples (Ken Boa, Perspectives on Parenthood)

Dt 6:23

Mt 12.43-45 ; Ex 3.18; God called Israel from service to Pharaoh to service to Him (because left to their own devices, they would return to Egypt, like we return to the world); Rom 8.15

Dt 7:1

see also 1Chr 1.13-16 and Gen 15.18-21 (Canaan's family prepares the land for the Israelites; Gen 9.25 and Gen 17.8 ); Lev 18.3-20 describes the moral depravity of the Canaanites

Dt 7:6–7

Jn 15.16, we did not choose Him, He chose us

Dt 7:7–8

God's love is causeless, Dt 9.4-5, Ezek 36.32; Rom 5.6-8; Titus 3.5

Dt 7:17–19

Nu 14.22-23, sure enough, they refused to believe and were disobedient (Heb 3.16-19; Heb 4.6)

Dt 8:2

Gen 22.1, God testing Abraham

Dt 8:5–9

Ps 37.34, God will bring you into the land in His own time and His own way

Dt 8:5

Discipline, Heb 12.7

Dt 8:12–14

Hos 13.6; Dt 6.10-12, Dt 32.15, don't forget Who brought you here; God sometimes has to take your options away in order to drive you to Him; God chose Israel; fought for them; brought them in; gave them the land (not because of them, but in spite of them); Dt 17.17, God warned any future king to be wary of riches, for they turn hearts from God; see also 2Chr 12.1 and 2Chr 26.16


This is why God sends preachers, Rom 10.14-15.


"We have been the recipients of the choicest bounties of heaven. We have been preserved, these many years, in peace and prosperity. We have grown in numbers, wealth and power, as no other nation has ever grown. But we have forgotten God. We have forgotten the gracious hand which preserved us in peace and multiplied and enriched and strengthened us; and we have vainly imagined, in the deceitfulness of our hearts that all these blessings were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our own. Intoxicated with unbroken success, we have become too self-sufficient to feel the necessity of redeeming and preserving grace, too proud to pray to God that made us. It behooves us, then to humble ourselves before the offended Power, to confess our national sins, and to pray for clemency and forgiveness" (Abraham Lincoln, National Day of Fasting, 30 April 1863).


During his 1789 Thanksgiving Proclamation, George Washington recommended the people of the United States set aside a day "acknowledging with grateful hearts the many signal favors of Almighty God especially by affording them an opportunity peaceably to establish a form of government for their safety and happiness"


Judges 7.2 , God wanted to make sure Gideon knew Who it was Who gave the victory


Amos 8.11-12, there is coming a day when you will hunger and thirst for the word of God, and will not find it


See also Ezek 16, Mt 13.7, Lk 14.18-19

Dt 8:14

Hos 13.6; Dt 31.20, they will become prosperous and satisfied and will turn to other gods


Bob Dylan, Gotta Serve Somebody

You're gonna have to serve somebody, yes indeed

You're gonna have to serve somebody,

It may be the devil or it may be the Lord

But you're gonna have to serve somebody.

Dt 8:17–18

Robert Robinson penned these words at age 22 in the year 1757 (Come Thou Fount of Every Blessing):

O to grace how great a debtor

Daily I’m constrained to be!

Let Thy goodness, like a fetter,

Bind my wandering heart to Thee.

Prone to wander, Lord, I feel it,

Prone to leave the God I love;

Here’s my heart, O take and seal it,

Seal it for Thy courts above.


God gives us our ability (Romans 12.6), our intelligence (Daniel 2.21), our wealth (Dt. 8.18), and our promotions (Ps 75.6-7); 1Chr 29.14; Augustine, Confessions, Book 9, Chapter 13, "But if a man recounts to you all the real merits he has, he is only telling you of your gifts to him"; Mt 5.3, only when you realize your spiritual bankruptcy can God begin working with you; “The unifying factor in ancient Israel was not her culture, architecture, economy, or even military objectives. The long-range unifying factor was her worship of Jehovah" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 367); Josh 23.6-13, Joshua told the Israelites to guard against this; 1K 12.28-33, it happened in Samaria; see also Hos 2.8 and Hos 10.1


Abraham Lincoln, 30 March 1863, said “We have forgotten God. We have forgotten the gracious Hand which preserved us in peace, and multiplied and enriched and strengthened us; and we have vainly imagined, in the deceitfulness of our hearts, that all these blessings were produced by some superior wisdom and virtue of our own” (James D. Richardson, A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897 (Published by Authority of Congress, 1899), vol. vi, p. 164).

Dt 9:3–6

"Later Moses pointed out that the Israelites actually deserved to be destroyed (9:13–14) rather than blessed with the gift of the land. So Israel should never develop a self-righteous attitude because of her victories in the Conquest. Those victories would be due to her enemies’ wickedness, God’s promise, and God’s grace" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 279)

Dt 9:4–6

God's love is causeless, Ezek 36.32 , Dt 7.7-8, Rom 5.6-8 ; Titus 3.5 ; Ezek 16.47

Dt 9:16

Ex 15.24, three days after leaving Egypt, and they were grumbling; Gal 1.6-7; Ps 106.13

Dt 9:20

Moses prays for his brother here, and his sister in Nu 12.13

Dt 10:8

1Chr 15.13, not seeking Him according to the ordinance

Dt 10:12

Micah 6.8, God requires us to execute justice, to love kindness, and to walk humbly with Him; in Mt 23.23, Jesus said the weightier provisions of the law are justice, mercy, and faithfulness; Ps 36.5-6 extols God's lovingkindness, faithfulness, righteousness, and justice; Ecc 12.13 instructs us to fear God and keep His commandments; 1Cor 4.2 instructs us to be faithful as stewards

Dt 10:14

Ps 24.1, God owns it all; 2Cor 12.2, third heaven

Dt 10:20

Dt 13.4, Dt 30.20, Jn 6.68, on the shepherd's heels

Dt 10:22

"An apparent discrepancy is found in Stephen’s discourse is in Acts 7:14. Stephen stated that 75 persons were in Jacob’s family, but the Hebrew text has “70” in both Genesis 46:27 and Exodus 1:5. In both places the Septuagint has 75. It is commonly said that Stephen, a Greek-speaking Jew, would have used the Septuagint and therefore was making only an “honest” mistake. This difficulty, however, can be resolved in other ways. One of the most widely accepted solutions is to recognize that the Hebrew text includes Jacob, Joseph, and Joseph’s two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh (a total of 70), but that the Septuagint omits Jacob and Joseph but includes Joseph’s seven grandchildren (mentioned in 1 Chron. 7:14–15, 20–25). This is supported by the Hebrew in Genesis 46:8–26 which enumerates 66 names, omitting Jacob, Joseph, and Joseph’s two sons. Another solution is that the Septuagint’s 75 includes the 66 plus the 9 wives of Jacob’s 12 sons (Judah’s and Simeon’s wives had died and Joseph’s wife was in Egypt)" (Stanley D. Toussaint, “Acts,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 370)

Dt 11:1

Jn 14.15; 1Jn 5.3, if you love God, you will keep His commandments

Dt 11:8–9

"The strength of the Israelites was directly related to their obedience. So the supernatural ability to conquer enemies stronger than they and the ability to live long in the land (cf. 4:40; 5:16; 6:2; 25:15; 32:47) was ultimately a question of ethics, not military skill" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 282)

Dt 11:9

Dathan and Abiram called Egypt a "land flowing with milk and honey" (Nu 16.13)

Dt 11:18–20

Dt 6.8-9 , Bind-Write principle; Jer 31.33, God will write the New Covenant on their hearts

Dt 11:22

Dt 10.20, Dt 30.20, Jn 6.68, clinging to God

Dt 11:25

Josh 2.9, Rahab acknowledged this

Dt 11:26–28

Dt 30.19, a choice; "Our daily choices shape our habits, and our habits shape our character. Our character in turn guides the decisions we make in times of stress, temptation, and adversity" (Ken Boa, Conformed)

Dt 11:29

Josh 8.33-35

Dt 13:1

This chapter's principle is found in the NT at Mt 18.15-17 and 1Cor 5.

Dt 13:3

1K 13.18, God tested the prophet with a false prophet

Dt 13:4

Dt 11.22, Dt 10.20, Dt 30.20, Jn 6.68, clinging to God; Jn 10.27, hear His voice and follow Him; Moses warned the people that the standard for truth must never be a miraculous sign or wonder (or other areas of human experience). The standard of truth is the Word of God.

Dt 13:5

“You must purge the evil,” occurs nine times (13:5; 17:7, 12; 19:19; 21:21; 22:21–22, 24; 24:7).

Dt 13:9

Jn 8.7, where it was prefaced with "he who is without sin"

Dt 13:10–11

"The result of such a severe action would be that all Israel would hear about this extraordinary devotion to the Lord and be afraid to disobey Him (cf. Acts 5:11). This is precisely what Moses was demanding of the people—an extraordinary commitment (superseding all other intimate relationships) to the God who had shown extraordinary grace to the nation (who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery; cf. Ex. 13:3, 14; 20:2; Deut. 5:6; 6:12; 7:8; 8:14; 13:5). This passage may have been in Jesus’ mind when He demanded a similar commitment of His followers (cf. Matt. 10:34–39; Luke 14:26)" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 286–287)

Dt 13:11

"The deterrent effects of capital punishment: the evil will be eliminated, and all Israel will hear of it and be afraid" (cf. Deut. 17.13 ; Deut. 21.21)

Dt 13:15

Gleason Archer declares, “In view of the corrupting influence of the Canaanite religion, especially with its religious prostitution … and infant sacrifice, it was impossible for pure faith and worship to be maintained in Israel except by the complete elimination of the Canaanites themselves” (A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Chicago: Moody Press, 1964, p. 261). This, of course, would apply also to any Israelite mimicking the Canaanite lifestyle.

Dt 14:4–20

"The animals in this first group are those that walk on land. Any animal could be eaten if it had a split hoof divided in two and chews the cud. Ten such animals are listed in verses 4–5. Those that meet only one of these criteria were considered ceremonially unclean. These included the camel, the rabbit, and the coney (the rock badger; cf. niv marg.), and the pig. The lists are obviously representative rather than exhaustive. 14:9–20. Creatures that swim in the sea could be eaten if they have fins and scales. Others could not be eaten for they were unclean. Creatures that fly, the third classification, were subdivided into birds (vv. 11–18), and insects (vv. 19–20). As mentioned previously the unclean birds—21 of them are listed—are birds of prey and/or eaters of carrion. Flying, swarming insects were unclean, but others (e.g., the locust, cricket, and grasshopper) were clean insects (v. 20)." (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 288–289)

Dt 14:24–26

Layered courts, Mk 11.15; Nu 2

Dt 14:26

"Both “wine” and “fermented drink” were permissible here in even an act of worship to the Lord. The Hebrew word for “wine” is yayin, which sometimes means an intoxicating beverage and other times means a nonintoxicating drink. The Hebrew word for “fermented drink” (šēḵār) is often rendered “strong drink” in some translations (e.g., kjv, nasb, rsv). This is misleading because it suggests that šēḵār refers to distilled liquor. But the process for distillation was not used in the Near East until the seventh century a.d. The “fermented drink” was probably a kind of beer (this is the usual niv trans.), brewed by the ancient Egyptians and Akkadians, and therefore low in alcohol content. (However, wine [yayin] drunk in excess can be intoxicating; cf., e.g., Isa. 5:11; Prov. 20:1; and drunkenness is sin.)" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 289–290)

Dt 15:19–21

2Sam 24.24, David would not offer anything to the Lord of that which would cost him nothing; Mal 1.8

Dt 16:17

1Cor 16.2, give as God prospers you

Dt 17:1

Mal 1.8, would you offer it to your governor?

Dt 17:2–7

"New Testament churches have a similar responsibility to keep themselves pure. A Christian offender should be “cut off” from his local church’s fellowship if a thorough investigation proves his sin and he is unwilling to repent of it. If he is a genuine believer he will not lose eternal life. But he will suffer loss on earth and receive less reward in heaven (Matt. 18:15–20; 1 Cor. 3:10–15; 5; 1 Tim. 5:19)" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 294)

Dt 17:6

God knew He would be using this scripture as the Son (Jn 8.17)

Dt 17:8–13 Prophet, Priest, King

Israel's Priests (Kings-17.14-20 , Prophet-18.15)

Dt 17:12

"The deterrent effects of capital punishment: the evil will be eliminated, and all Israel will hear of it and be afraid" (cf. Deut. 13:11; Deut. 21.21)

Dt 17:14–20 Prophet, Priest, King

Israel's Kings (Prophet-18.15, Priests-17.8-13); 1Sam 8.10-18 ; all three prohibitions (horses, wives, treasures) were designed to reduce the king to the status of a servant totally dependent on his Master, the Lord. An obedient Israelite king was to depend not on military strength but on the Lord alone. God had already demonstrated His ability to crush a large superior chariot army (Ex. 14–15)

Dt 17:16–17

1 Kin 4:26; 1K 10:26–29; 1K 11.3, this is exactly what happened; God said those who do this will ultimately turn from the Lord (Dt 8.12-14); Money, Sex, Power, 1Jn 2.16 ; Dt 17.18-20, he was supposed to do two things: write a copy of the law for himself, and read it continually; Jesus said Gentiles go after Money: Matthew 6:31–32, Sex: Revelation 2:18–23, and Power: Matthew 20:25–27.

Dt 17:18–19

Acts 5.29, government has its boundaries; Ex 1.17 ; Jn 19.11 ; Mt 22.21; Dan 3.28 and Dan 6.10

Dt 18:15–22 Prophet, Priest, King

Israel's Prophet (Kings-17.14-20, Priests-17.8-13); in Jn 1.21, they were waiting for this prophet, the Messiah (Jn 1.21) , for whom Peter told them later they could stop looking (Acts 3.22-23)

Dt 18:18

The prophet of God speaks only what God tells him, Jn 12.49-50 ; fulfilled in Mk 9.7, "listen to Him"; Jer 1.9, "My words in your mouth"

Dt 18:22

The test of a prophet, Jer 28.9

Dt 19:12

Mt 5.29-30, purge sin from your life

Dt 19:21

"This law was given to encourage appropriate punishment of a criminal in cases where there might be a tendency to be either too lenient or too strict. The law codes of the ancient Near East did provide for the maiming of a criminal (e.g., gouging out an eye, cutting off a lip, etc.). With one exception (Deut. 25:11–12) Israelite law did not explicitly allow such mutilation. Apart from this one instance, therefore, only the first part of this law, life for life, was applied to indicate that punishment ought to fit the crime (punishment in kind). Thus a slave who lost his eye was freed (Ex. 21:26). The lex talionis also served as a restraint in cases where the punisher might be inclined to be excessive in administering punishment. Jesus did not deny the validity of this principle for the courtroom, but He denied its usage in personal relationships (Matt. 5:38–42). There should be no personal retaliation or revenge" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 298)

Dt 20:1

God doesn't delight in the strength of a horse, Ps 33.17 ; Ps 147.10; Prov 21.31

Dt 20:3–4

Same as Ex 14.13, fear not, God will save you; 1Sam 4.9

Dt 20:4

Ps 127.1, unless the LORD guards the city, the watchman stays awake in vain

Dt 20:5–8

Mt 19.29, Jesus told His disciples those who leave their fields, families, and homes to follow Him would not be disappointed; Lk 9.57-62 ; evidence of God's blessing in the OT is the fruit of the vine...evidence in the NT is the fruit of the Spirit; Dt 28.30, they would lose their families, homes, and produce if they forgot the Lord; Note difference between Paul's prayer (Col 1.9-12, spiritual), and the prayer of Jabez (1Chr 4.10, physical)

Dt 20:11

The curse of Canaan, Gen 9.25 (they would serve [avad] Israel)

Dt 20:14

"The women in the nations mentioned in 20:10–15 (i.e., from the Aramean culture) were not as degenerate as those from the Canaanite culture. Also Aramean women adopted the religions of their husbands. Abraham, for example, insisted that his servant get a wife from the Aramean culture for Isaac and not a Canaanite woman (Gen. 24). Thus the women and children of those nations could be spared. But one only needs to remember the influence of Jezebel who brought her husband Ahab under the worship of Baal to see the destructive effects of marriage to a Canaanite wife" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 300)

Dt 20:16–18

Thus, what they did to Jericho (Josh 6.21) ; Judges 3.5-7 describes what happens when you don't eradicate sin; If one were to catapult the practices, genocide, and barbarism of these cultures/peoples into the 21st century and broadcast it around the world via CNN, there would most certainly be a global outcry for severe military action and punishment. And if modern, “enlightened” man would call for such severe judgment against such atrocities, why should they criticize God for carrying out the same thing?

Dt 21:21

"The deterrent effects of capital punishment: the evil will be eliminated, and all Israel will hear of it and be afraid (cf. Deut. 13:11; 17:13). No record in the Bible or in extrabiblical literature has come to light which indicates that this punishment was ever carried out. The fear of death apparently deterred Jewish sons from being stubborn rebels" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 301); see also 1Sam 2.29 and Lk 14.26

Dt 21:23

A hanging corpse, Jn 19.31

Dt 22:9–11

2 Cor 6.14, God demands separation

Dt 22:12

The tassels were to serve as a reminder of the Lord’s commands and Israel’s obligation to obey them (Numbers 15:37–41)

Dt 22:17

It is the custom of the daughters of Israel when having marital intercourse to use two testing-rags, one for the man and the other for herself, and virtuous women prepare also a third rag whereby to make themselves fit for marital duty. If a vestige of blood is found on his rag they are both unclean and are also under the obligation of bringing a sacrifice. If any blood is found on her rag immediately after their intercourse they are both unclean and are also under the obligation of bringing a sacrifice (Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Niddah 14a)

Dt 22:22

"In Mesopotamia an adulterous couple was bound and thrown into the water (Code of Hammurabi, Law 129), though no extant court records from Mesopotamia indicate that this penalty was ever enforced" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 302)

Dt 23:12–14

Nu 35.34, don't defile the land where God dwells; Prov 1.28-30, unholiness turns God away

Dt 23:25

Like an "all you can eat" buffet

Dt 25:19

1Chr 4.41-43, this took place in Hezekiah's day

Dt 28:1

"The curses section (vv. 15–68) is about four times longer than the blessings section (vv. 1–14). This may have been in keeping with the style of the ancient Near Eastern treaties which generally included more curses than blessings. More likely, however, the greater length of the curse section was meant to foreshadow Israel’s eventual failure under the covenant" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 311)


The Mosaic Covenant was made with a people who had already been redeemed by God’s gracious deliverance from Egypt. So the covenant was given to Israel that they might enjoy fellowship with God and be prepared to receive his blessings

Dt 28:30

Mt 19.29, Jesus told His disciples those who leave their fields, families, and homes to follow Him would not be disappointed; Lk 9.57-62 ; Dt 20.5, those who had not had a chance to enjoy their produce, wives, or homes, did not have to go to war

Dt 28:53

This curse was literally fulfilled when the Arameans besieged Samaria (2 Kings 6:24–29) and when the Babylonians besieged Jerusalem (Lam. 2:20; 4:10)

Dt 28:64

Rom 1.24, it is a privilege to serve God, but we can forfeit that privilege

Dt 29:4

Ps 119, Give Me Understanding

34, Give me understanding, that I may observe Your law and keep it with all my heart.

73, Your hands made me and fashioned me; give me understanding, that I may learn Your commandments.

125, I am Your servant; give me understanding, that I may know Your testimonies.

144, Your testimonies are righteous forever; give me understanding that I may live.

169, Let my cry come before You, O LORD; give me understanding according to Your word.

Dt 29:4

Rom 11.8, God has to open their eyes; Ps 119.18 ; 2K 6.17; Lk 24.16, 31, 45 ; Job 38.36 ; Phil 4.19 ; Ps 19.8 (photidzw in LXX and NT, shine upon or make known)

Dt 29:5

Jn 21.11, fish net was not torn

Dt 29:29

"The more discordant, therefore, and incredible, the divine mystery is, the more honor is shown to God in believing it, and the nobler is the victory of faith" (Francis Bacon); Prov 25.2, it is the glory of God to conceal (satar) a matter; Rom 9.20, Who are you who answers back to God?


"If God were small enough to be understood, He wouldn’t be big enough to be worshipped" (Evelyn Underhill)


"To accept everything is an exercise, to understand everything a strain...The poet only asks to get his head into the heavens. It is the logician who seeks to get the heaven into his head. And it is his head that splits." (GK Chesterton, Orthodoxy, p. 11)


"Mysticism keeps men sane. As long as you have mystery you have health; when you destroy mystery you create morbidity. The ordinary man has always been sane because the ordinary man has always been a mystic. He has permitted the twilight. He has always had one foot in earth and the other in fairyland. He has always left himself free to doubt his gods; but (unlike the agnostic of to-day) free also to believe in them. He has always cared more for truth than for consistency. If he saw two truths that seemed to contradict each other, he would take the two truths and contradiction along with them. His spiritual sight is stereoscopic, like his physical sight: he sees two different pictures at once and yet sees all the better for that. Thus, he has always believed that there was such a thing as fate, but such a thing as free will also. Thus, he believes that children were indeed the kingdom of heaven, but nevertheless ought to be obedient to the kingdom of earth. He admired youth because it was young and age because it was not. It is exactly this balance of apparent contradictions that has been the whole buoyancy of the healthy man. The whole secret of mysticism is this: that man can understand everything by the help of what he does not understand. The morbid logician seeks to make everything lucid, and succeeds in making everything mysterious. The mystic allows one thing to be mysterious, and everything else becomes lucid.” (GK Chesterton, Orthodoxy, p. 23)


It's the difference between a dog watching you read, and a dog watching you eat

Dt 30:6

Jer 31.33, God will one day put His law on their heart

Dt 30:19

"Our daily choices shape our habits, and our habits shape our character. Our character in turn guides the decisions we make in times of stress, temptation, and adversity" (Ken Boa, Conformed); Jer 21.8; Josh 24.15 ; 1K 18.21; Gal 5.16 ; Dt 11.26-28

Dt 30:20

Dt 10.20; Dt 13.4; "Holding fast to Him", same word for "cleave" in Gen 2.24, "cleave to his wife"

Dt 31:6–8

Joshua said the same in Josh 1.9

Dt 31:13

Dt 6.7, you shall teach God's words diligently to your sons

Dt 31:20

Dt 8.14, their heart will become proud and they will forget God

Dt 32:7

The challenge to remember is given 16 times in Deuteronomy, starting in 4:10 and concluding here

Dt 32:10

Ezek 16

Dt 32:15

Dt 8.12-14 and Dt 6.10-12, don't forget Who brought you here

Dt 32:17

1Cor 10.20, serve God or Satan; Ps 106.37

Dt 32:21

Rom 11.20, Isaac's blood line will be broken off because of unbelief, and the Gentiles will be grafted in through their belief (Gal 3.7); Rom 9.8, Jn 3.6

Dt 32:31 Uniqueness of Christianity

-The Christian Life is impossible (God not only gives you the standard, He gives you the power to meet it)

-Incarnation (God sacrificed Himself)

-Salvation is entirely by grace

-Immanence and Transcendence of God (a both infinite and personal God)

-Humanity is not good

-One God, three persons

-Suffering has a redemptive value

Dt 32:35

"Though the mills of God grind slowly, yet they grind exceeding small; Though with patience He stands waiting, with exactness grinds He all." (Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's translation of Friedrich von Logau's "Divine Retribution")

Dt 32:38

Jer 11.12; Jer 2.28; Is 47.13, let those gods you are serving help you now

Dt 32:51

This incident happened in Nu 20.10

Dt 32:52

Apparently, Moses did make it to the promised land, Mt 17.3 (if the Mount of Transfiguration is located in the promised land)

Dt 33:4–5

"To become a nation it was necessary to have a common people (v. 5), a common constitution (the Law, v. 4), and a common land. The sojourn in Egypt molded Jacob’s descendants into a common people, and the giving of the Law at Sinai gave them a common constitution" (Jack S. Deere, “Deuteronomy,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 321.)

Dt 33:8

Levi is often omitted in the Old Testament lists of tribes. Here the tribe of Simeon, which later was absorbed by Judah (Josh. 19:1–9), is omitted

Dt 33:12

Josh 18.28 was a fulfillment of this prophecy (Benjamin was given the city of Jerusalem)

Dt 34:5

Other additions after Moses' death: Dt 2:10–12 , 20–23 ; 3:13b–14 ; Moses (who represented the Law) could not bring Israel into their rest...only Joshua (which in the NT is translated "Jesus") could do that (Gal 4.1-5)

Dt 34:8

30 days of mourning, Nu 20.29

Jos 1:1 Joshua

Top 10 Proper Nouns in Josh-Judges

Yhwh-399

Yisrael-344

Yehoshua-175

Yordan-82

Mosheh-62 (only 4X in Judges)

Binyamin-51

Minasheh-50

Yehudah-49

Gilead-47

Ephraim-45


Top 10 Verbs in Josh-Judges

Amer-406

Hayah-266

Halak (walk)-162

Nathan-158

Asah (make, do)-154

Bo (enter, come)-152

Alah (go up)-127

Yashav (sit, dwell)-123

Yatza (go out)-107

Avar (pass over)-80


3 major campaigns (central, south, and north) against 30 enemy armies; Joshua cut the south off from the north much like MacArthur in Korea


The conquest lasted seven years (Josh 14.10) . Caleb stated (Josh 14.7 ) that he was 40 years old when he went to spy out the land. The wilderness wanderings lasted 38 years, thus bringing Caleb’s age to 78 at the beginning of the Conquest. Caleb then said he was 85 at the end of the Conquest. So the Conquest lasted 7 years. This is confirmed by Caleb’s reference (v. 10) to God’s sustaining grace for 45 years since Kadesh Barnea (38 years of the wanderings plus 7 years of the Conquest)" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 357)


Paul taught that the events of the Exodus and Conquest are meaningful for Christians in that those events possess significance as types (cf. 1 Cor. 10:1–11). The Greek form of the name “Joshua” (“Yahweh saves” or “Yahweh is salvation“) is “Jesus.” As Joshua led Israel to victory over her enemies and into possession of the Promised Land, and as he interceded for the nation after it had sinned and been defeated, so does Jesus. He brings the people of God into a promised rest (Heb. 4:8–9); intercedes for His own continually (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25); and enables them to defeat their enemies (Rom. 8:37; Heb. 2:14–15)" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 326)

Jos 1:5–9

Joshua had God's promise, His power, and His presence

Jos 1:5 Joshua and Moses Parallel

Dt 34:9, Moses laid his hands on Joshua

Stopped Water/Crossed on dry land

Took off Shoes

Circumcised

Spies

Admonished People before they (Joshua and Moses) died

Dt 31.6 and Josh 1.9, "Be strong and courageous, do not be afraid, because God is with you"

Jos 1:6

Joshua was told to be strong and courageous 3x by God, and once by his own people in this chapter--not for battle, but for compliance with God's law; Dwight Eisenhower (34th POTUS), “This Biblical story of the Promised land inspired the founders of America” (“Our Christian Heritage,” Letter from Plymouth Rock (Marlborough, MH: The Plymouth Rock Foundation), p. 7).

Jos 1:7–8

Joshua was commanded to

-Talk about God's law

-Think about it continually

-Obey it and act by it

Jos 1:8

Ps 1.2-3, meditate on God's word and prosper ; 2Chr 26.5 ; because God was with Joshua, his fame went throughout the land (Josh 6.27; Josh 3.7) ; 2Chr 14.7 ; Joshua would later pass this along to the Israelites before they took final possession of the land, Josh 23.6 ; 2Chr 31.21, Hezekiah sought the Lord with all his heart and prospered; Israel listened to the Philistines and were dismayed (1Sam 17.11); David gave the same charge to Solomon, 1K 2.3 (then they would succeed, שׂכל‎)


Benjamin Franklin, March 1778, “Whoever shall introduce into public affairs the principles of primitive Christianity will change the face of the world” (Charles E. Kistler, This Nation Under God (Boston: Richard G. Badger, The Gorham Press, 1924), p.83). He also said, 9 March 1790, “I think [Jesus’] System of Morals and his Religion, as he left them to us, is the best the World ever saw, or is likely to see” (John Bigelow, Complete Words of Benjamin Franklin).


Ulysses S. Grant (18th POTUS), “I believe in the Holy Scriptures, and whoso lives by them will be benefited thereby” (James P. Boyd, Military and Civil Life of General Ulysses S. Grant, pp. 709-710.)

Jos 1:9

Mt 28.20, Jesus said "I am with you..."; Moses said the same in Dt 31.6-8 ; David charged Solomon with the same in 1Chr 22.13 and 1Chr 28.20

Jos 1:17

The Bereans did the same in Acts 17.11

Jos 2:6

2Sam 17.19-20, David's spies were also hidden under grain, and lied about

Jos 2:9

Dt 11.25, God told Israel this would happen if they loved and obeyed Him; Ex 15.15, from the song of Moses

Jos 2:13

Like Ruth (Ruth 2.12), she sought refuge under God's wings

Jos 2:14

Much like the man at Bethel, Judges 1.24 (chesed)

Jos 2:19

1Jn 5.12, a clear distinction between who is safe and who is not; Acts 27.31; Gen 7.23

Jos 3:5

"It would be easier to understand if he had said, “Sharpen your swords and check your shields!” But spiritual not military preparation was needed at this time because God was about to reveal Himself by performing a great miracle in Israel’s midst" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 333–334)

Jos 3:7

Josh 6.27, God did exactly that (just like He said in Josh 1.8-9) ; humble yourelf, and let God lift you up (Prov 27.2; James 4.10)

Jos 3:15

Due to the melting of the winter snows of Mount Hermon

Jos 3:16

Ex 15.8, the waters there also rose up into a heap (ned), like a dam; 2K 2.8-14, Elijah and Elisha both crossed the Jordan similarly

Jos 4:6

Ex 12.26, Passover

Jos 4:20–24

Ps 106.13, because they were prone to forget what He had done for them

Jos 4:24

Jn 9.3 and Jn 11.4, these things are done so that God would be glorified

Jos 5:10

"Interestingly the nation arrived across the Jordan just in time to celebrate the Passover on the 14th day of the month (Ex. 12:2, 6... This was only the third Passover the nation had observed. The first was observed in Egypt the night before their deliverance from bondage and oppression (Ex. 12:1–28). The second was observed at Mount Sinai just before the people broke camp and moved toward Canaan (Num. 9:1–5). Apparently the Passover was not observed during the wilderness wanderings, but now at Gilgal in Canaan the feast was again observed." (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 338.)

Jos 5:14

"The captain of the host referred to the angelic host, the same “army” of heaven that later surrounded Dothan when Elisha and his servant appeared to be greatly outnumbered by the Aramean army (2 Kings 6:8–17). In the Garden of Gethsemane at the time of His arrest, Jesus referred to this heavenly army when He said that 12 legions of angels were ready to defend Him (Matt. 26:53). In Hebrews 1:14 they are described as 'ministering spirits sent to serve those who will inherit salvation.'" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 339)

Jos 5:15

God did the same to Moses, Ex 3.5

Jos 6:1

Rev 18: Jesus’ Hebrew name is “Joshua.” In both accounts we have a whore and her scarlet, two witnesses, seven trumpets of war and a great city that falls.

Jos 6:2

"The tense of the Hebrew verb is prophetic perfect (I have delivered), describing a future action as if it were already accomplished. Since God had declared it, the victory was assured" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 340); Rev 21.6, it is done

Jos 6:3–5

This first conquest was miraculous in order to demonstrate to the Israelites victory is from God; the rest of the conquests are conventional military campaigns; Judges 7.7; Zech 4.6

Jos 6:6–11

Obedience; America has forgotten its faith; Screwtape Letters: “Our cause is never more in danger than when a human, no longer desiring, but still intending, to do our Enemy's will, looks round upon a universe from which every trace of Him seems to have vanished, and asks why he has been forsaken, and still obeys.”

Jos 6:21

If they had not destroyed it all, they would have been influenced to forget God (Dt 20.16-18; Judges 3.5-7 ), and all nations of the earth would NOT have been blessed through them (Gen 12.1-3)

Jos 6:26

1K 16.34, sure enough, someone tried to rebuild it and lost his firstborn and youngest (Hiel the Bethelite)

Jos 6:27

God told Joshua that he would have success if he did all God told him (Josh 1.8-9; Josh 3.7)

Jos 7:1

2K 5.15-17; Dan 5.17

Jos 7:10

Ex 14.15, God said the same to Moses

Jos 7:11–13

1Cor 5.1-2, removing sin from the congregation; see also Mt 18.15-17

Jos 7:21

"The three crucial steps in Achan’s sin are familiar: he saw; he coveted; he took. Eve took the same tragic steps in the Garden of Eden (Gen. 3:6), as did David with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 11:2–4)" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 345); much like Gehazi, 2K 5.24

Jos 7:24

Nu 16.27 ; "Since children were not to be executed for their father’s sins (Deut. 24:16) it is assumed that Achan’s family (except for his wife, who was not mentioned) were accomplices in the crime (cf. comments on Num. 16:28–35)" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 345)

Jos 7:25

Acts 5.5; God set a standard early on; Lev 10.2

Jos 8:2

"If only Achan had suppressed his greedy and selfish desires and obeyed God’s word at Jericho he would later have had all his heart desired and God’s blessing too. The path of obedience and faith is always best" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 346); Did God deceive them? See also John 7.8-10

Jos 8:6

Judges 20.32, Israel did the same to Gibeah

Jos 8:26

Moses did the same with the Amalekites, Ex 17.11

Jos 8:30

20 miles away

Jos 8:32

The Behistun Inscription in Iran is three times the length of Deuteronomy.

Jos 8:33–35

Neh 8.2, Ezra did the same for the people; Dt 11.29

Jos 8:34

The huge natural amphitheater which still exists there made it possible for the people to hear every word; "From this point on the history of the Jews depended on their attitude toward the Law which had been read in their hearing that day. When they were obedient there was blessing; when they were disobedient there was judgment" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 347)

Jos 9:4

Same root word for "crafty" in Gen 3.1, the serpent; 2Cor 11.13-15, Satan disguises himself

Jos 9:6

"The Mosaic Law permitted Israel to make peace with cities that were at a considerable distance, but required them to wipe out completely the cities of the seven nearby Canaanite nations (Deut. 20:10–18; 7:1–2)" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 348)

Jos 9:7

The travelers from Gibeon were called Hivites (cf. 11:19); they were descendants of Canaan, a son of Ham (Gen. 10:17), and thus destined to serve the descendants of Shem (Gen 9.25)

Jos 9:9–10

They made no mention of Israel’s recent victories over Jericho and Ai because if they had come from a far country they would not have heard of these recent battles.

Jos 9:14

1Chr 10.13-14, Saul committed the same error; Prov 3.5-6, trust in the Lord, not your own understanding

Jos 9:18

Saul disregarded this oath (cf. 2 Sam. 21:1–6); Mt 5.37, let your "Yes" be "Yes"; Swore to their own hurt, Ps 15.4

Jos 9:23

"The curse became a blessing. It was on behalf of the Gibeonites that God worked a great miracle (cf. 10:10–14). Later the tabernacle was pitched at Gibeon (2 Chron. 1:3); still later some Gibeonites helped Nehemiah rebuild Jerusalem’s wall (Neh. 3:7). Such is the grace of God. He is still able to turn a curse into a blessing. Though it is usually true that the natural consequences of sin must run their course, the grace of God can not only forgive but also overrule mistakes and often bring blessings out of sins and failures" (Donald K. Campbell, “Joshua,” in The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures, ed. J. F. Walvoord and R. B. Zuck, vol. 1 (Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1985), 349)